Cognitive function, gait speed decline, and comorbidities

The health, aging and body composition study

Hal H. Atkinson, Caterina Rosano, Eleanor Marie Simonsick, Jeff D. Williamson, Cralen Davis, Walter T. Ambrosius, Stephen R. Rapp, Matteo Cesari, Anne B. Newman, Tamara B. Harris, Susan M. Rubin, Kristine Yaffe, Suzanne Satterfield, Stephen B. Kritchevsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background. Emerging evidence indicates an association between cognitive function and physical performance in late life. This study examines the relationship between cognitive function and subsequent gait speed decline among high-functioning older adults. Methods. Measures of global cognitive function (Modified Mini Mental State Examination [3MS]) and executive control function (ECF) (a clock drawing task [CLOX 1] and the 15-item Executive Interview [EXIT 15]) were obtained in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study in 1999-2000. Gait-speed (meters/second) was assessed over 20 meters at usual pace. Using a mixed model, we assessed the relationship between baseline cognitive function and gait-speed change over 3 years. Results. Two thousand, three hundred forty-nine older adults (mean age 75.6 ± 2.9 years) completed the assessments. After adjustment for baseline gait speed, a 1-standard-deviation (SD) lower performance on each cognitive test was associated with greater gait-speed decline over 3 years: 0.016 m/s for the 3MS (SD = 8.1), 0.009 m/s for CLOX 1 (SD = 2.4), and 0.012 m/s for EXIT 15 (SD = 4.1) (p <.0005 for all). After adjustment for comorbidities, the effect size was attenuated for 3MS and CLOX 1, and the association for EXIT 15 was no longer significant. Depression score was most strongly associated with the EXIT 15 effect reduction. Conclusion. Global and executive cognitive functions predict declines in gait speed. The association of ECF with gait speed decline is attenuated by comorbid conditions, particularly depression. Elucidation of the mechanisms underlying these associations may point to new pathways for the treatment of physical decline associated with diminished cognitive function.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)844-850
Number of pages7
JournalJournals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Volume62
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2007
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Body Composition
Cognition
Comorbidity
Executive Function
Health
Depression
Walking Speed
Interviews

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aging

Cite this

Cognitive function, gait speed decline, and comorbidities : The health, aging and body composition study. / Atkinson, Hal H.; Rosano, Caterina; Simonsick, Eleanor Marie; Williamson, Jeff D.; Davis, Cralen; Ambrosius, Walter T.; Rapp, Stephen R.; Cesari, Matteo; Newman, Anne B.; Harris, Tamara B.; Rubin, Susan M.; Yaffe, Kristine; Satterfield, Suzanne; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

In: Journals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, Vol. 62, No. 8, 08.2007, p. 844-850.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Atkinson, HH, Rosano, C, Simonsick, EM, Williamson, JD, Davis, C, Ambrosius, WT, Rapp, SR, Cesari, M, Newman, AB, Harris, TB, Rubin, SM, Yaffe, K, Satterfield, S & Kritchevsky, SB 2007, 'Cognitive function, gait speed decline, and comorbidities: The health, aging and body composition study', Journals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, vol. 62, no. 8, pp. 844-850.
Atkinson, Hal H. ; Rosano, Caterina ; Simonsick, Eleanor Marie ; Williamson, Jeff D. ; Davis, Cralen ; Ambrosius, Walter T. ; Rapp, Stephen R. ; Cesari, Matteo ; Newman, Anne B. ; Harris, Tamara B. ; Rubin, Susan M. ; Yaffe, Kristine ; Satterfield, Suzanne ; Kritchevsky, Stephen B. / Cognitive function, gait speed decline, and comorbidities : The health, aging and body composition study. In: Journals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. 2007 ; Vol. 62, No. 8. pp. 844-850.
@article{27809cefb34844c39ce0e297ada32731,
title = "Cognitive function, gait speed decline, and comorbidities: The health, aging and body composition study",
abstract = "Background. Emerging evidence indicates an association between cognitive function and physical performance in late life. This study examines the relationship between cognitive function and subsequent gait speed decline among high-functioning older adults. Methods. Measures of global cognitive function (Modified Mini Mental State Examination [3MS]) and executive control function (ECF) (a clock drawing task [CLOX 1] and the 15-item Executive Interview [EXIT 15]) were obtained in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study in 1999-2000. Gait-speed (meters/second) was assessed over 20 meters at usual pace. Using a mixed model, we assessed the relationship between baseline cognitive function and gait-speed change over 3 years. Results. Two thousand, three hundred forty-nine older adults (mean age 75.6 ± 2.9 years) completed the assessments. After adjustment for baseline gait speed, a 1-standard-deviation (SD) lower performance on each cognitive test was associated with greater gait-speed decline over 3 years: 0.016 m/s for the 3MS (SD = 8.1), 0.009 m/s for CLOX 1 (SD = 2.4), and 0.012 m/s for EXIT 15 (SD = 4.1) (p <.0005 for all). After adjustment for comorbidities, the effect size was attenuated for 3MS and CLOX 1, and the association for EXIT 15 was no longer significant. Depression score was most strongly associated with the EXIT 15 effect reduction. Conclusion. Global and executive cognitive functions predict declines in gait speed. The association of ECF with gait speed decline is attenuated by comorbid conditions, particularly depression. Elucidation of the mechanisms underlying these associations may point to new pathways for the treatment of physical decline associated with diminished cognitive function.",
author = "Atkinson, {Hal H.} and Caterina Rosano and Simonsick, {Eleanor Marie} and Williamson, {Jeff D.} and Cralen Davis and Ambrosius, {Walter T.} and Rapp, {Stephen R.} and Matteo Cesari and Newman, {Anne B.} and Harris, {Tamara B.} and Rubin, {Susan M.} and Kristine Yaffe and Suzanne Satterfield and Kritchevsky, {Stephen B.}",
year = "2007",
month = "8",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "62",
pages = "844--850",
journal = "Journals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences",
issn = "1079-5006",
publisher = "Oxford University Press",
number = "8",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Cognitive function, gait speed decline, and comorbidities

T2 - The health, aging and body composition study

AU - Atkinson, Hal H.

AU - Rosano, Caterina

AU - Simonsick, Eleanor Marie

AU - Williamson, Jeff D.

AU - Davis, Cralen

AU - Ambrosius, Walter T.

AU - Rapp, Stephen R.

AU - Cesari, Matteo

AU - Newman, Anne B.

AU - Harris, Tamara B.

AU - Rubin, Susan M.

AU - Yaffe, Kristine

AU - Satterfield, Suzanne

AU - Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

PY - 2007/8

Y1 - 2007/8

N2 - Background. Emerging evidence indicates an association between cognitive function and physical performance in late life. This study examines the relationship between cognitive function and subsequent gait speed decline among high-functioning older adults. Methods. Measures of global cognitive function (Modified Mini Mental State Examination [3MS]) and executive control function (ECF) (a clock drawing task [CLOX 1] and the 15-item Executive Interview [EXIT 15]) were obtained in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study in 1999-2000. Gait-speed (meters/second) was assessed over 20 meters at usual pace. Using a mixed model, we assessed the relationship between baseline cognitive function and gait-speed change over 3 years. Results. Two thousand, three hundred forty-nine older adults (mean age 75.6 ± 2.9 years) completed the assessments. After adjustment for baseline gait speed, a 1-standard-deviation (SD) lower performance on each cognitive test was associated with greater gait-speed decline over 3 years: 0.016 m/s for the 3MS (SD = 8.1), 0.009 m/s for CLOX 1 (SD = 2.4), and 0.012 m/s for EXIT 15 (SD = 4.1) (p <.0005 for all). After adjustment for comorbidities, the effect size was attenuated for 3MS and CLOX 1, and the association for EXIT 15 was no longer significant. Depression score was most strongly associated with the EXIT 15 effect reduction. Conclusion. Global and executive cognitive functions predict declines in gait speed. The association of ECF with gait speed decline is attenuated by comorbid conditions, particularly depression. Elucidation of the mechanisms underlying these associations may point to new pathways for the treatment of physical decline associated with diminished cognitive function.

AB - Background. Emerging evidence indicates an association between cognitive function and physical performance in late life. This study examines the relationship between cognitive function and subsequent gait speed decline among high-functioning older adults. Methods. Measures of global cognitive function (Modified Mini Mental State Examination [3MS]) and executive control function (ECF) (a clock drawing task [CLOX 1] and the 15-item Executive Interview [EXIT 15]) were obtained in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study in 1999-2000. Gait-speed (meters/second) was assessed over 20 meters at usual pace. Using a mixed model, we assessed the relationship between baseline cognitive function and gait-speed change over 3 years. Results. Two thousand, three hundred forty-nine older adults (mean age 75.6 ± 2.9 years) completed the assessments. After adjustment for baseline gait speed, a 1-standard-deviation (SD) lower performance on each cognitive test was associated with greater gait-speed decline over 3 years: 0.016 m/s for the 3MS (SD = 8.1), 0.009 m/s for CLOX 1 (SD = 2.4), and 0.012 m/s for EXIT 15 (SD = 4.1) (p <.0005 for all). After adjustment for comorbidities, the effect size was attenuated for 3MS and CLOX 1, and the association for EXIT 15 was no longer significant. Depression score was most strongly associated with the EXIT 15 effect reduction. Conclusion. Global and executive cognitive functions predict declines in gait speed. The association of ECF with gait speed decline is attenuated by comorbid conditions, particularly depression. Elucidation of the mechanisms underlying these associations may point to new pathways for the treatment of physical decline associated with diminished cognitive function.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=34548768923&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=34548768923&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 62

SP - 844

EP - 850

JO - Journals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences

JF - Journals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences

SN - 1079-5006

IS - 8

ER -