Cognitive and physical rehabilitation of intensive care unit survivors: Results of the RETURN randomized controlled pilot investigation

James C. Jackson, E. Wesley Ely, Miriam C. Morey, Venice M. Anderson, Laural B. Denne, Jennifer Clune, Carol S. Siebert, Kristin R. Archer, Renee Torres, David Janz, Elena Schiro, Julie Jones, Ayumi K. Shintani, Brian Levine, Brenda T. Pun, Jennifer Thompson, Nathan E. Brummel, Helen Hoenig

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Millions of patients who survive medical and surgical general intensive care unit care every year experience newly acquired long-term cognitive impairment and profound physical and functional disabilities. To overcome the current reality in which patients receive inadequate rehabilitation, we devised a multifaceted, in-home, telerehabilitation program implemented using social workers and psychology technicians with the goal of improving cognitive and functional outcomes. METHODS:: This was a single-site, feasibility, pilot, randomized trial of 21 general medical/surgical intensive care unit survivors (8 controls and 13 intervention patients) with either cognitive or functional impairment at hospital discharge. After discharge, study controls received usual care (sporadic rehabilitation), whereas intervention patients received a combination of in-home cognitive, physical, and functional rehabilitation over a 3-month period via a social worker or master's level psychology technician utilizing telemedicine to allow specialized multidisciplinary treatment. Interventions over 12 wks included six in-person visits for cognitive rehabilitation and six televisits for physical/functional rehabilitation. Outcomes were measured at the completion of the rehabilitation program (i.e., at 3 months), with cognitive functioning as the primary outcome. Analyses were conducted using linear regression to examine differences in 3-month outcomes between treatment groups while adjusting for baseline scores. RESULTS:: Patients tolerated the program with only one adverse event reported. At baseline both groups were well-matched. At 3-month follow-up, intervention group patients demonstrated significantly improved cognitive executive functioning on the widely used and well-normed Tower test (for planning and strategic thinking) vs. controls (median [interquartile range], 13.0 [11.5-14.0] vs. 7.5 [4.0-8.5]; adjusted p <.01). Intervention group patients also reported better performance (i.e., lower score) on one of the most frequently used measures of functional status (Functional Activities Questionnaire at 3 months vs. controls, 1.0 [0.0-3.0] vs. 8.0 [6.0-11.8], adjusted p = .04). Conclusions: A multicomponent rehabilitation program for intensive care unit survivors combining cognitive, physical, and functional training appears feasible and possibly effective in improving cognitive performance and functional outcomes in just 3 months. Future investigations with a larger sample size should be conducted to build on this pilot feasibility program and to confirm these results, as well as to elucidate the elements of rehabilitation contributing most to improved outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1088-1097
Number of pages10
JournalCritical Care Medicine
Volume40
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2012
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Intensive Care Units
Survivors
Rehabilitation
Critical Care
Social Psychology
Telemedicine
Sample Size
Linear Models
Psychology

Keywords

  • brain injury
  • cognitive impairment
  • functional disability
  • occupational therapy
  • physical therapy
  • rehabilitation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

Cite this

Cognitive and physical rehabilitation of intensive care unit survivors : Results of the RETURN randomized controlled pilot investigation. / Jackson, James C.; Ely, E. Wesley; Morey, Miriam C.; Anderson, Venice M.; Denne, Laural B.; Clune, Jennifer; Siebert, Carol S.; Archer, Kristin R.; Torres, Renee; Janz, David; Schiro, Elena; Jones, Julie; Shintani, Ayumi K.; Levine, Brian; Pun, Brenda T.; Thompson, Jennifer; Brummel, Nathan E.; Hoenig, Helen.

In: Critical Care Medicine, Vol. 40, No. 4, 04.2012, p. 1088-1097.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Jackson, JC, Ely, EW, Morey, MC, Anderson, VM, Denne, LB, Clune, J, Siebert, CS, Archer, KR, Torres, R, Janz, D, Schiro, E, Jones, J, Shintani, AK, Levine, B, Pun, BT, Thompson, J, Brummel, NE & Hoenig, H 2012, 'Cognitive and physical rehabilitation of intensive care unit survivors: Results of the RETURN randomized controlled pilot investigation', Critical Care Medicine, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 1088-1097. https://doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0b013e3182373115
Jackson, James C. ; Ely, E. Wesley ; Morey, Miriam C. ; Anderson, Venice M. ; Denne, Laural B. ; Clune, Jennifer ; Siebert, Carol S. ; Archer, Kristin R. ; Torres, Renee ; Janz, David ; Schiro, Elena ; Jones, Julie ; Shintani, Ayumi K. ; Levine, Brian ; Pun, Brenda T. ; Thompson, Jennifer ; Brummel, Nathan E. ; Hoenig, Helen. / Cognitive and physical rehabilitation of intensive care unit survivors : Results of the RETURN randomized controlled pilot investigation. In: Critical Care Medicine. 2012 ; Vol. 40, No. 4. pp. 1088-1097.
@article{594fea2a59f74188b45e242ad3028be5,
title = "Cognitive and physical rehabilitation of intensive care unit survivors: Results of the RETURN randomized controlled pilot investigation",
abstract = "Background: Millions of patients who survive medical and surgical general intensive care unit care every year experience newly acquired long-term cognitive impairment and profound physical and functional disabilities. To overcome the current reality in which patients receive inadequate rehabilitation, we devised a multifaceted, in-home, telerehabilitation program implemented using social workers and psychology technicians with the goal of improving cognitive and functional outcomes. METHODS:: This was a single-site, feasibility, pilot, randomized trial of 21 general medical/surgical intensive care unit survivors (8 controls and 13 intervention patients) with either cognitive or functional impairment at hospital discharge. After discharge, study controls received usual care (sporadic rehabilitation), whereas intervention patients received a combination of in-home cognitive, physical, and functional rehabilitation over a 3-month period via a social worker or master's level psychology technician utilizing telemedicine to allow specialized multidisciplinary treatment. Interventions over 12 wks included six in-person visits for cognitive rehabilitation and six televisits for physical/functional rehabilitation. Outcomes were measured at the completion of the rehabilitation program (i.e., at 3 months), with cognitive functioning as the primary outcome. Analyses were conducted using linear regression to examine differences in 3-month outcomes between treatment groups while adjusting for baseline scores. RESULTS:: Patients tolerated the program with only one adverse event reported. At baseline both groups were well-matched. At 3-month follow-up, intervention group patients demonstrated significantly improved cognitive executive functioning on the widely used and well-normed Tower test (for planning and strategic thinking) vs. controls (median [interquartile range], 13.0 [11.5-14.0] vs. 7.5 [4.0-8.5]; adjusted p <.01). Intervention group patients also reported better performance (i.e., lower score) on one of the most frequently used measures of functional status (Functional Activities Questionnaire at 3 months vs. controls, 1.0 [0.0-3.0] vs. 8.0 [6.0-11.8], adjusted p = .04). Conclusions: A multicomponent rehabilitation program for intensive care unit survivors combining cognitive, physical, and functional training appears feasible and possibly effective in improving cognitive performance and functional outcomes in just 3 months. Future investigations with a larger sample size should be conducted to build on this pilot feasibility program and to confirm these results, as well as to elucidate the elements of rehabilitation contributing most to improved outcomes.",
keywords = "brain injury, cognitive impairment, functional disability, occupational therapy, physical therapy, rehabilitation",
author = "Jackson, {James C.} and Ely, {E. Wesley} and Morey, {Miriam C.} and Anderson, {Venice M.} and Denne, {Laural B.} and Jennifer Clune and Siebert, {Carol S.} and Archer, {Kristin R.} and Renee Torres and David Janz and Elena Schiro and Julie Jones and Shintani, {Ayumi K.} and Brian Levine and Pun, {Brenda T.} and Jennifer Thompson and Brummel, {Nathan E.} and Helen Hoenig",
year = "2012",
month = "4",
doi = "10.1097/CCM.0b013e3182373115",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "40",
pages = "1088--1097",
journal = "Critical Care Medicine",
issn = "0090-3493",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams and Wilkins",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Cognitive and physical rehabilitation of intensive care unit survivors

T2 - Results of the RETURN randomized controlled pilot investigation

AU - Jackson, James C.

AU - Ely, E. Wesley

AU - Morey, Miriam C.

AU - Anderson, Venice M.

AU - Denne, Laural B.

AU - Clune, Jennifer

AU - Siebert, Carol S.

AU - Archer, Kristin R.

AU - Torres, Renee

AU - Janz, David

AU - Schiro, Elena

AU - Jones, Julie

AU - Shintani, Ayumi K.

AU - Levine, Brian

AU - Pun, Brenda T.

AU - Thompson, Jennifer

AU - Brummel, Nathan E.

AU - Hoenig, Helen

PY - 2012/4

Y1 - 2012/4

N2 - Background: Millions of patients who survive medical and surgical general intensive care unit care every year experience newly acquired long-term cognitive impairment and profound physical and functional disabilities. To overcome the current reality in which patients receive inadequate rehabilitation, we devised a multifaceted, in-home, telerehabilitation program implemented using social workers and psychology technicians with the goal of improving cognitive and functional outcomes. METHODS:: This was a single-site, feasibility, pilot, randomized trial of 21 general medical/surgical intensive care unit survivors (8 controls and 13 intervention patients) with either cognitive or functional impairment at hospital discharge. After discharge, study controls received usual care (sporadic rehabilitation), whereas intervention patients received a combination of in-home cognitive, physical, and functional rehabilitation over a 3-month period via a social worker or master's level psychology technician utilizing telemedicine to allow specialized multidisciplinary treatment. Interventions over 12 wks included six in-person visits for cognitive rehabilitation and six televisits for physical/functional rehabilitation. Outcomes were measured at the completion of the rehabilitation program (i.e., at 3 months), with cognitive functioning as the primary outcome. Analyses were conducted using linear regression to examine differences in 3-month outcomes between treatment groups while adjusting for baseline scores. RESULTS:: Patients tolerated the program with only one adverse event reported. At baseline both groups were well-matched. At 3-month follow-up, intervention group patients demonstrated significantly improved cognitive executive functioning on the widely used and well-normed Tower test (for planning and strategic thinking) vs. controls (median [interquartile range], 13.0 [11.5-14.0] vs. 7.5 [4.0-8.5]; adjusted p <.01). Intervention group patients also reported better performance (i.e., lower score) on one of the most frequently used measures of functional status (Functional Activities Questionnaire at 3 months vs. controls, 1.0 [0.0-3.0] vs. 8.0 [6.0-11.8], adjusted p = .04). Conclusions: A multicomponent rehabilitation program for intensive care unit survivors combining cognitive, physical, and functional training appears feasible and possibly effective in improving cognitive performance and functional outcomes in just 3 months. Future investigations with a larger sample size should be conducted to build on this pilot feasibility program and to confirm these results, as well as to elucidate the elements of rehabilitation contributing most to improved outcomes.

AB - Background: Millions of patients who survive medical and surgical general intensive care unit care every year experience newly acquired long-term cognitive impairment and profound physical and functional disabilities. To overcome the current reality in which patients receive inadequate rehabilitation, we devised a multifaceted, in-home, telerehabilitation program implemented using social workers and psychology technicians with the goal of improving cognitive and functional outcomes. METHODS:: This was a single-site, feasibility, pilot, randomized trial of 21 general medical/surgical intensive care unit survivors (8 controls and 13 intervention patients) with either cognitive or functional impairment at hospital discharge. After discharge, study controls received usual care (sporadic rehabilitation), whereas intervention patients received a combination of in-home cognitive, physical, and functional rehabilitation over a 3-month period via a social worker or master's level psychology technician utilizing telemedicine to allow specialized multidisciplinary treatment. Interventions over 12 wks included six in-person visits for cognitive rehabilitation and six televisits for physical/functional rehabilitation. Outcomes were measured at the completion of the rehabilitation program (i.e., at 3 months), with cognitive functioning as the primary outcome. Analyses were conducted using linear regression to examine differences in 3-month outcomes between treatment groups while adjusting for baseline scores. RESULTS:: Patients tolerated the program with only one adverse event reported. At baseline both groups were well-matched. At 3-month follow-up, intervention group patients demonstrated significantly improved cognitive executive functioning on the widely used and well-normed Tower test (for planning and strategic thinking) vs. controls (median [interquartile range], 13.0 [11.5-14.0] vs. 7.5 [4.0-8.5]; adjusted p <.01). Intervention group patients also reported better performance (i.e., lower score) on one of the most frequently used measures of functional status (Functional Activities Questionnaire at 3 months vs. controls, 1.0 [0.0-3.0] vs. 8.0 [6.0-11.8], adjusted p = .04). Conclusions: A multicomponent rehabilitation program for intensive care unit survivors combining cognitive, physical, and functional training appears feasible and possibly effective in improving cognitive performance and functional outcomes in just 3 months. Future investigations with a larger sample size should be conducted to build on this pilot feasibility program and to confirm these results, as well as to elucidate the elements of rehabilitation contributing most to improved outcomes.

KW - brain injury

KW - cognitive impairment

KW - functional disability

KW - occupational therapy

KW - physical therapy

KW - rehabilitation

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84858759301&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84858759301&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3182373115

DO - 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3182373115

M3 - Article

C2 - 22080631

AN - SCOPUS:84858759301

VL - 40

SP - 1088

EP - 1097

JO - Critical Care Medicine

JF - Critical Care Medicine

SN - 0090-3493

IS - 4

ER -