Cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying reading and naming: Evidence from letter-by-letter reading and optic aphasia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

We report detailed analysis of language performance in a patient, RMI, a 55-year-old man who presented with a homonymous hemianopsia, optic aphasia, and alexia without agraphia (with letter-by-letter reading) acutely after stroke. MRI showed infarct in the left occipital and medial temporal lobe and hypoperfusion of the entire posterior cerebral artery territory, including the splenium. Extensive language testing revealed severely impaired picture naming and oral reading, with relatively spared tactile naming and recognition of orally spelled words, consistent with impaired access to lexical and semantic representations from vision. In addition, he had a milder deficit in accessing lexical representations for output from all input modalities. RMI's execution of various language tasks provided considerable insight into the mechanisms that underlie oral reading. His performance indicated that both semantic access and orthographic to phonologic conversion mechanisms were partially intact. When information from these two impoverished systems was coupled (the picture of an object presented with its written name), his ability to read/name improved significantly, consistent with the hypothesis that partially accessed semantic information from vision can combine with partially accessed sublexical orthographic to phonologic conversion mechanisms to access phonological representations for output. Furthermore, his written word and picture recognition improved to normal at a time when magnetic resonance perfusion imaging demonstrated reperfusion of the splenium. We interpret these results, as well as results from previous studies in the literature, within a model of the neural regions critical for various cognitive processes underlying reading.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)325-337
Number of pages13
JournalNeurocase
Volume11
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2005

Fingerprint

Aphasia
Reading
Semantics
Language
Names
Pure Alexia
Posterior Cerebral Artery
Hemianopsia
Aptitude
Magnetic Resonance Angiography
Touch
Temporal Lobe
Reperfusion
Stroke
Letters
Optics
Naming
Lexical Representation
Orthographic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Psychology(all)

Cite this

@article{cb97434971b941bb89bca01d662a6a7c,
title = "Cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying reading and naming: Evidence from letter-by-letter reading and optic aphasia",
abstract = "We report detailed analysis of language performance in a patient, RMI, a 55-year-old man who presented with a homonymous hemianopsia, optic aphasia, and alexia without agraphia (with letter-by-letter reading) acutely after stroke. MRI showed infarct in the left occipital and medial temporal lobe and hypoperfusion of the entire posterior cerebral artery territory, including the splenium. Extensive language testing revealed severely impaired picture naming and oral reading, with relatively spared tactile naming and recognition of orally spelled words, consistent with impaired access to lexical and semantic representations from vision. In addition, he had a milder deficit in accessing lexical representations for output from all input modalities. RMI's execution of various language tasks provided considerable insight into the mechanisms that underlie oral reading. His performance indicated that both semantic access and orthographic to phonologic conversion mechanisms were partially intact. When information from these two impoverished systems was coupled (the picture of an object presented with its written name), his ability to read/name improved significantly, consistent with the hypothesis that partially accessed semantic information from vision can combine with partially accessed sublexical orthographic to phonologic conversion mechanisms to access phonological representations for output. Furthermore, his written word and picture recognition improved to normal at a time when magnetic resonance perfusion imaging demonstrated reperfusion of the splenium. We interpret these results, as well as results from previous studies in the literature, within a model of the neural regions critical for various cognitive processes underlying reading.",
author = "Marsh, {Elisabeth Breese} and Argye Hillis-Trupe",
year = "2005",
month = "10",
doi = "10.1080/13554790591006320",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "11",
pages = "325--337",
journal = "Neurocase",
issn = "1355-4794",
publisher = "Psychology Press Ltd",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying reading and naming

T2 - Evidence from letter-by-letter reading and optic aphasia

AU - Marsh, Elisabeth Breese

AU - Hillis-Trupe, Argye

PY - 2005/10

Y1 - 2005/10

N2 - We report detailed analysis of language performance in a patient, RMI, a 55-year-old man who presented with a homonymous hemianopsia, optic aphasia, and alexia without agraphia (with letter-by-letter reading) acutely after stroke. MRI showed infarct in the left occipital and medial temporal lobe and hypoperfusion of the entire posterior cerebral artery territory, including the splenium. Extensive language testing revealed severely impaired picture naming and oral reading, with relatively spared tactile naming and recognition of orally spelled words, consistent with impaired access to lexical and semantic representations from vision. In addition, he had a milder deficit in accessing lexical representations for output from all input modalities. RMI's execution of various language tasks provided considerable insight into the mechanisms that underlie oral reading. His performance indicated that both semantic access and orthographic to phonologic conversion mechanisms were partially intact. When information from these two impoverished systems was coupled (the picture of an object presented with its written name), his ability to read/name improved significantly, consistent with the hypothesis that partially accessed semantic information from vision can combine with partially accessed sublexical orthographic to phonologic conversion mechanisms to access phonological representations for output. Furthermore, his written word and picture recognition improved to normal at a time when magnetic resonance perfusion imaging demonstrated reperfusion of the splenium. We interpret these results, as well as results from previous studies in the literature, within a model of the neural regions critical for various cognitive processes underlying reading.

AB - We report detailed analysis of language performance in a patient, RMI, a 55-year-old man who presented with a homonymous hemianopsia, optic aphasia, and alexia without agraphia (with letter-by-letter reading) acutely after stroke. MRI showed infarct in the left occipital and medial temporal lobe and hypoperfusion of the entire posterior cerebral artery territory, including the splenium. Extensive language testing revealed severely impaired picture naming and oral reading, with relatively spared tactile naming and recognition of orally spelled words, consistent with impaired access to lexical and semantic representations from vision. In addition, he had a milder deficit in accessing lexical representations for output from all input modalities. RMI's execution of various language tasks provided considerable insight into the mechanisms that underlie oral reading. His performance indicated that both semantic access and orthographic to phonologic conversion mechanisms were partially intact. When information from these two impoverished systems was coupled (the picture of an object presented with its written name), his ability to read/name improved significantly, consistent with the hypothesis that partially accessed semantic information from vision can combine with partially accessed sublexical orthographic to phonologic conversion mechanisms to access phonological representations for output. Furthermore, his written word and picture recognition improved to normal at a time when magnetic resonance perfusion imaging demonstrated reperfusion of the splenium. We interpret these results, as well as results from previous studies in the literature, within a model of the neural regions critical for various cognitive processes underlying reading.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=27944465016&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=27944465016&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1080/13554790591006320

DO - 10.1080/13554790591006320

M3 - Article

C2 - 16251134

AN - SCOPUS:27944465016

VL - 11

SP - 325

EP - 337

JO - Neurocase

JF - Neurocase

SN - 1355-4794

IS - 5

ER -