Coffee intake and risk of hypertension: The Johns Hopkins precursors study

Michael John Klag, Nae Yuh Wang, Lucy Ann Meoni, Frederick L. Brancati, Lisa A Cooper, Kung Yee Liang, J Hunter Young, Daniel E Ford

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Whether the increase in blood pressure with coffee drinking seen in clinical trials persists over time and translates into an increased incidence of hypertension is not known. Methods: We assessed coffee intake in a cohort of 1017 white male former medical students (mean age, 26 years) in graduating classes from 1948 to 1964 up to 11 times over a median follow-up of 33 years. Blood pressure and incidence of hypertension were determined annually by self-report, demonstrated to be accurate in this cohort. Results: Consumption of 1 cup of coffee a day raised systolic blood pressure by 0.19 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.35) and diastolic pressure by 0.27 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.39) after adjustment for parental incidence of hypertension and time-dependent body mass index, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity in analyses using generalized estimating equations. Compared with nondrinkers at baseline, coffee drinkers had a greater incidence of hypertension during follow-up (18.8% vs 28.3%; P=.03). Relative risk (95% confidence interval) of hypertension associated with drinking 5 or more cups a day was 1.35 (0.87-2.08) for baseline intake and 1.60 (1.06-2.40) for intake over follow-up. After adjustment for the variables listed above, however, these associations were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Over many years of follow-up, coffee drinking is associated with small increases in blood pressure, but appears to play a small role in the development of hypertension.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)657-662
Number of pages6
JournalArchives of Internal Medicine
Volume162
Issue number6
StatePublished - Mar 25 2002

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Coffee
Blood Pressure
Hypertension
Drinking
Incidence
Confidence Intervals
Medical Students
Alcohol Drinking
Self Report
Body Mass Index
Smoking
Clinical Trials
Exercise

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine

Cite this

Coffee intake and risk of hypertension : The Johns Hopkins precursors study. / Klag, Michael John; Wang, Nae Yuh; Meoni, Lucy Ann; Brancati, Frederick L.; Cooper, Lisa A; Liang, Kung Yee; Young, J Hunter; Ford, Daniel E.

In: Archives of Internal Medicine, Vol. 162, No. 6, 25.03.2002, p. 657-662.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Background: Whether the increase in blood pressure with coffee drinking seen in clinical trials persists over time and translates into an increased incidence of hypertension is not known. Methods: We assessed coffee intake in a cohort of 1017 white male former medical students (mean age, 26 years) in graduating classes from 1948 to 1964 up to 11 times over a median follow-up of 33 years. Blood pressure and incidence of hypertension were determined annually by self-report, demonstrated to be accurate in this cohort. Results: Consumption of 1 cup of coffee a day raised systolic blood pressure by 0.19 mm Hg (95{\%} confidence interval, 0.02-0.35) and diastolic pressure by 0.27 mm Hg (95{\%} confidence interval, 0.15-0.39) after adjustment for parental incidence of hypertension and time-dependent body mass index, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity in analyses using generalized estimating equations. Compared with nondrinkers at baseline, coffee drinkers had a greater incidence of hypertension during follow-up (18.8{\%} vs 28.3{\%}; P=.03). Relative risk (95{\%} confidence interval) of hypertension associated with drinking 5 or more cups a day was 1.35 (0.87-2.08) for baseline intake and 1.60 (1.06-2.40) for intake over follow-up. After adjustment for the variables listed above, however, these associations were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Over many years of follow-up, coffee drinking is associated with small increases in blood pressure, but appears to play a small role in the development of hypertension.",
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