A 44-yr-old woman with menorrhagia and uterine fibroids underwent total laparoscopic hysterectomy, revealing several submucosal, intramural, and subserosal tan-white nodules in the uterus. Microscopic examination revealed tumors displaying 3 distinct morphologies: 1 tumor with features of conventional leiomyoma; 1 tumor with increased cellularity, staghorn/hemangiopericytoma-like vasculature, and occasional atypical cells with prominent red nucleoli and some perinucleolar halos suggesting a fumarate hydratase (FH)-deficient atypical leiomyoma; and 1 tumor with an admixture of epithelioid and spindled cells with the former arranged around blood vessels suggesting a perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa). Immunohistochemical studies confirmed these diagnoses by demonstrating loss of FH expression in the atypical leiomyoma and diffuse expression of HMB45 and cathepsin K in the tumor with epithelioid features. Sanger sequencing analysis revealed that the FH-deficient atypical leiomyoma harbored a c.181A>G (p.Lys61Glu) mutation in exon 2 of the FH gene. As this mutation was not present in either the other tumors or peripheral blood, the mutation is somatic and hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer syndrome is excluded. This case highlights the importance of thorough examination of uterine mesenchymal tumors with atypical and epithelioid features so that tumors with some potential for recurrence (PEComas) and those that might indicate a hereditary cancer syndrome (FH-deficient atypical leiomyoma) are identified and can trigger appropriate clinical investigation and follow-up.
- Atypical leiomyoma
- Fumarate hydratase
- Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer syndrome
- Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine
- Obstetrics and Gynecology