Cocaine enhances brain endothelial adhesion molecules and leukocyte migration

Xiaohu Gan, Ling Zhang, Omri Berger, Monique Stins, Dennis Way, Dennis D. Taub, Sulie L. Chang, Kwang Sik Kim, Steve D. House, Martin Weinand, Marlys Witte, Michael C. Graves, Milan Fiala

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Leukocyte infiltration of cerebral vessels in cocaine-associated vasculopathy suggests that cocaine may enhance leukocyte migration. We have investigated cocaine's effects on leukocyte adhesion in human brain microvascular endothelial cell (BMVEC) cultures and monocyte migration in an in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) model constructed with BMVEC and astrocytes. Cocaine (10-5 to 10-9 M) enhanced adhesion of monocytes and neutrophils to BMVEC. In the BBB model, cocaine (10-4 to 10-8 M) enhanced monocyte transmigration. Cocaine increased expression of endothelial adhesion molecules, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, CD54), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (ELAM-1) on BMVEC. The peak effect on ICAM-1 expression was between 6 and 18 h after treatment. ICAM-1 was increased by cocaine in BMVEC, but not in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and the enhancement was greater in a coculture of BMVEC with monocytes. ICAM-1 expression was enhanced by a transcriptional mechanism. Polymyxin B inhibited up-regulation of adhesion molecules by LPS but not by cocaine. In LPS-activated BMVEC/monocyte coculture, cocaine increased secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6. Taken together, these findings indicate that cocaine enhances leukocyte migration across the cerebral vessel wall, in particular under inflammatory conditions, but the effects are variable in different individuals. Cocaine's effects are exerted through a cascade of augmented expression of inflammatory cytokines and endothelial adhesion molecules. These could underlie the cerebrovascular complications of cocaine abuse.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)68-76
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Immunology
Volume91
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1999
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Cell Adhesion Molecules
Cocaine
Brain
Endothelial Cells
Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1
Monocytes
Leukocytes
Coculture Techniques
Blood-Brain Barrier
Polymyxin B
Cocaine-Related Disorders
E-Selectin
Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1
Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells
Astrocytes
Interleukin-6
Neutrophils
Up-Regulation
Cell Culture Techniques
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha

Keywords

  • Blood-brain barrier
  • Cocaine
  • Endothelial cells
  • ICAM-1
  • Monocytes
  • Vasculopathy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine

Cite this

Gan, X., Zhang, L., Berger, O., Stins, M., Way, D., Taub, D. D., ... Fiala, M. (1999). Cocaine enhances brain endothelial adhesion molecules and leukocyte migration. Clinical Immunology, 91(1), 68-76.

Cocaine enhances brain endothelial adhesion molecules and leukocyte migration. / Gan, Xiaohu; Zhang, Ling; Berger, Omri; Stins, Monique; Way, Dennis; Taub, Dennis D.; Chang, Sulie L.; Kim, Kwang Sik; House, Steve D.; Weinand, Martin; Witte, Marlys; Graves, Michael C.; Fiala, Milan.

In: Clinical Immunology, Vol. 91, No. 1, 1999, p. 68-76.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gan, X, Zhang, L, Berger, O, Stins, M, Way, D, Taub, DD, Chang, SL, Kim, KS, House, SD, Weinand, M, Witte, M, Graves, MC & Fiala, M 1999, 'Cocaine enhances brain endothelial adhesion molecules and leukocyte migration', Clinical Immunology, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 68-76.
Gan, Xiaohu ; Zhang, Ling ; Berger, Omri ; Stins, Monique ; Way, Dennis ; Taub, Dennis D. ; Chang, Sulie L. ; Kim, Kwang Sik ; House, Steve D. ; Weinand, Martin ; Witte, Marlys ; Graves, Michael C. ; Fiala, Milan. / Cocaine enhances brain endothelial adhesion molecules and leukocyte migration. In: Clinical Immunology. 1999 ; Vol. 91, No. 1. pp. 68-76.
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