Co-registration of magnetic resonance spectroscopy and transcranial magnetic stimulation

Antoine Hone-Blanchet, Rachel Salas, Pablo A Celnik, Aadi Kalloo, Michael Schar, Nicolaas Puts, Ashley D. Harris, Peter B Barker, Shirley Fecteau, Christopher J Earley, Richard Allen, Richard Anthony Edward Edden

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a widely used tool for noninvasive modulation of brain activity, that is thought to interact primarily with excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitters such as glutamate and GABA can be measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). An important prerequisite for studying the relationship between MRS neurotransmitter levels and responses to TMS is that both modalities should examine the same regions of brain tissue. However, co-registration of TMS and MRS has been little studied to date. This study reports on a procedure for the co-registration and co-visualization of MRS and TMS, successfully localizing the hand motor cortex, as subsequently determined by its functional identification using TMS. Sixteen healthy subjects took part in the study; in 14 of 16 subjects, the TMS determined location of motor activity intersected the (2.5cm)3 voxel selected for MRS, centered on the so called 'hand knob' of the precentral gyrus. It is concluded that MRS voxels placed according to established anatomical landmarks in most cases agree well with functional determination of the motor cortex by TMS. Reasons for discrepancies are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)52-57
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Neuroscience Methods
StatePublished - Mar 5 2015



  • Co-registration
  • Co-visualization
  • Magnetic resonance spectroscopy
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)

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