Background: We sought to investigate the effects of co-grafting neural stem cells (NSCs) with olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) on neurological behavior in rats subjected to traumatic brain injury (TBI) and explore underlying molecular mechanisms.Methods: TBI was established by percussion device made through a weight drop (50 g) from a 30 cm height. Cultured NSCs and OECs isolated from rats were labeled by Hoechst 33342 (blue) and chloromethyl-benzamidodialkyl carbocyanine (CM-Dil) (red), respectively. Then, NSCs and/or OECs, separately or combined, were transplanted into the area surrounding the injury site. Fourteen days after transplantation, neurological severity score (NSS) were recorded. The brain tissue was harvested and processed for immunocytochemistry, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Results: Significant neurological function improvement was observed in the three transplant groups, compared to the TBI group, and co-transplantation gave rise to the best improvement. Morphological evaluation showed that the number of neurons in cortex from combination implantation was more than for other groups (P <0.05); conversely, the number of apoptotic cells showed a significant decrease by TUNEL staining. Transplanted NSCs and OECs could survive and migrate in the brain, and the number of neurons differentiating from NSCs in the co-transplantation group was significantly greater than in the NSCs group. At the molecular level, the expressions of IL-6 and BAD in the co-graft group were found to be down regulated significantly, when compared to either the NSC or OEC alone groups.Conclusion: The present study demonstrates for the first time the optimal effects of co-grafting NSCs and OECs as a new strategy for the treatment of TBI via an anti-inflammation mechanism.
- Neural stem cells (NSCs)
- Olfactory en sheathing cells (OECs)
- Traumatic brain injury (TBI)
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience