While the previous review of CNS-IRIS in the HIV-infected patient on highly active antiretroviral therapy (Part 1) dealt with an overview of the biology, pathology, and neurologic presentation of this condition and a discussion of the atypical imaging findings in PML-IRIS and cryptococcal meningitis-IRIS due to the robust inflammatory response, the current review (Part 2) discusses the imaging findings in other commonly encountered organisms seen in association with CNS-IRIS, namely, VZV, CMV, HIV, Candida organisms, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Toxoplasma gondii. Also described is the imaging appearance of CNS-IRIS when not associated with a particular organism. Recognition of these imaging findings will give credence to the diagnosis of CNS-IRIS and will allow the clinician to institute changes in medical management, if necessary, so that immune reconstitution and improved patient outcome can occur with time.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Clinical Neurology