Clostridium difficile: Old and new observations

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Clostridium difficile is now the most frequent bacterial enteric pathogen in the developed world. This organism has been the recognized agent of 20% to 25% of cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhea since its discovery in 1978. Like enteric pathogens, it causes a wide range of clinical disease ranging from asymptomatic colonization or trivial diarrhea at one end of the spectrum and life threatening pseudomembranous colitis at the other. Effective methods to diagnose this condition with toxin assays and treatment with either vancomycin or metronidazole have been in widespread use for 25 years. During the past 3 to 4 years there has been the recognition of a new strain designated the NAP-1 strain which has been associated with some unique features including epidemics in geographically defined areas, more serious forms of disease and relatively refractoriness to standard therapy. This NAP-1 strain is now found rather frequently in Canada, the United States, and much of Europe. This paper will review much of the current knowledge of C. difficile, current methods of recognition and management, and implication of the newly recognized epidemic strain.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Volume41
Issue numberSUPPL. 1
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2007

Fingerprint

Clostridium difficile
Diarrhea
Pseudomembranous Enterocolitis
Asymptomatic Diseases
Metronidazole
Vancomycin
Canada
Anti-Bacterial Agents
1-nitro-2-acetylpyrrole
Therapeutics

Keywords

  • Antibiotic-associated diarrhea
  • Clostridium difficile
  • Pseudomembraneous colitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology

Cite this

Clostridium difficile : Old and new observations. / Bartlett, John.

In: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, Vol. 41, No. SUPPL. 1, 05.2007.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{bd7f808e407546a2881d27ea29e068bd,
title = "Clostridium difficile: Old and new observations",
abstract = "Clostridium difficile is now the most frequent bacterial enteric pathogen in the developed world. This organism has been the recognized agent of 20{\%} to 25{\%} of cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhea since its discovery in 1978. Like enteric pathogens, it causes a wide range of clinical disease ranging from asymptomatic colonization or trivial diarrhea at one end of the spectrum and life threatening pseudomembranous colitis at the other. Effective methods to diagnose this condition with toxin assays and treatment with either vancomycin or metronidazole have been in widespread use for 25 years. During the past 3 to 4 years there has been the recognition of a new strain designated the NAP-1 strain which has been associated with some unique features including epidemics in geographically defined areas, more serious forms of disease and relatively refractoriness to standard therapy. This NAP-1 strain is now found rather frequently in Canada, the United States, and much of Europe. This paper will review much of the current knowledge of C. difficile, current methods of recognition and management, and implication of the newly recognized epidemic strain.",
keywords = "Antibiotic-associated diarrhea, Clostridium difficile, Pseudomembraneous colitis",
author = "John Bartlett",
year = "2007",
month = "5",
doi = "10.1097/MCG.0b013e31803d16ec",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "41",
journal = "Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology",
issn = "0192-0790",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams and Wilkins",
number = "SUPPL. 1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Clostridium difficile

T2 - Old and new observations

AU - Bartlett, John

PY - 2007/5

Y1 - 2007/5

N2 - Clostridium difficile is now the most frequent bacterial enteric pathogen in the developed world. This organism has been the recognized agent of 20% to 25% of cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhea since its discovery in 1978. Like enteric pathogens, it causes a wide range of clinical disease ranging from asymptomatic colonization or trivial diarrhea at one end of the spectrum and life threatening pseudomembranous colitis at the other. Effective methods to diagnose this condition with toxin assays and treatment with either vancomycin or metronidazole have been in widespread use for 25 years. During the past 3 to 4 years there has been the recognition of a new strain designated the NAP-1 strain which has been associated with some unique features including epidemics in geographically defined areas, more serious forms of disease and relatively refractoriness to standard therapy. This NAP-1 strain is now found rather frequently in Canada, the United States, and much of Europe. This paper will review much of the current knowledge of C. difficile, current methods of recognition and management, and implication of the newly recognized epidemic strain.

AB - Clostridium difficile is now the most frequent bacterial enteric pathogen in the developed world. This organism has been the recognized agent of 20% to 25% of cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhea since its discovery in 1978. Like enteric pathogens, it causes a wide range of clinical disease ranging from asymptomatic colonization or trivial diarrhea at one end of the spectrum and life threatening pseudomembranous colitis at the other. Effective methods to diagnose this condition with toxin assays and treatment with either vancomycin or metronidazole have been in widespread use for 25 years. During the past 3 to 4 years there has been the recognition of a new strain designated the NAP-1 strain which has been associated with some unique features including epidemics in geographically defined areas, more serious forms of disease and relatively refractoriness to standard therapy. This NAP-1 strain is now found rather frequently in Canada, the United States, and much of Europe. This paper will review much of the current knowledge of C. difficile, current methods of recognition and management, and implication of the newly recognized epidemic strain.

KW - Antibiotic-associated diarrhea

KW - Clostridium difficile

KW - Pseudomembraneous colitis

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=34247184821&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=34247184821&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1097/MCG.0b013e31803d16ec

DO - 10.1097/MCG.0b013e31803d16ec

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:34247184821

VL - 41

JO - Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology

JF - Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology

SN - 0192-0790

IS - SUPPL. 1

ER -