The lack of sensitive and specific biomarkers for prostate cancer (PCa) has led to over-diagnosis and overtreatment with uncertain benefit. Therefore, biomarkers for early diagnosis that can distinguish aggressive from indolent tumors and that can detect metastatic or recurrent disease are needed. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are non-protein-coding RNA species. lncRNAs are dysregulated in many diseases including PCa and are emerging as major players in cancer development. lncRNAs have several features that make then suitable as both biomarkers and therapeutics, and lncRNAs regulate critical cancer hallmarks in prostate epithelial cells including proliferation and survival.Methods:The PubMed database was searched using the terms 'long noncoding RNA', 'biomarker' and 'prostate cancer'. Known lncRNAs implicated as biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets in PCa are reviewed.Results:We comprehensively review several lncRNAs with potential as biomarkers for PCa. lncRNAs including PCA3, PCATs, SChLAP1, SPRY4-IT1 and TRPM2-AS are upregulated in PCa and are cancer specific; they are, therefore, attractive lead candidate biomarkers for clinical application. Several lncRNA therapeutics are currently being investigated by several companies for the treatment of various cancers including PCa. Small interfering RNAs, antisense oligonucleotides, ribozymes, deoxyribozymes and aptemers are few promising technologies for future lncRNA bases therapeutics.Conclusion:lncRNA expression is altered in cancer. Aberrant regulation promotes tumor formation, progression and metastasis. lncRNAs can use as tumor markers for PCa and may be attractive novel therapeutic targets for the diagnosis and treatment of PCa.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research