Clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease in adults: Part I. Definition, disease stages, evaluation, treatment, and risk factors

Cynda Ann Johnson, Andrew S. Levey, Josef Coresh, Adeera Levin, Joseph Lau, Garabed Eknoyan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

In February 2002, the Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative of the National Kidney Foundation published clinical practice guidelines on chronic kidney disease. The first six of the 15 guidelines are of the greatest relevance to family physicians. Part I of this two-part article reviews guidelines 1, 2, and 3. Chronic kidney disease is defined by the presence of a marker of kidney damage, such as proteinuria (ratio of greater than 30 mg of albumin to 1 g of creatinine on untimed [spot] urine testing), or a decreased glomerular filtration rate for three or more months. Disease staging is based on the glomerular filtration rate. Evaluation should be directed at determining the type and severity of chronic kidney disease. Treatment goals include preventing disease progression and complications. The guidelines place special emphasis on the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. Risk factors for chronic kidney disease include diabetes mellitus, hypertension, family history of chronic kidney disease, age older than 60 years, and U.S. racial or ethnic minority status. The guidelines recommend testing for proteinuria and estimating the glomerular filtration rate in patients at risk for chronic kidney disease. Family physicians should weigh the value of the National Kidney Foundation guidelines for their clinical practice based on the strength of evidence and perceived cost-effectiveness until additional evidence becomes available on the usefulness of the recommended quality indicators. Copyright

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)869-876
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican family physician
Volume70
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Family Practice

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