Clinical pharmacokinetics of 1-[((S)-2-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,4,2- dioxaphosphorinan-5-yl)methyl]cytosine in human immunodeficiency virus- infected patients

Kenneth C. Cundy, Patricia Barditch-Crovo, Brent G. Petty, April Ruby, Murphy Redpath, Howard S. Jaffe, Paul S. Lietman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of 1-[((S)-2-hydroxy-2-oxo- 1,4,2-dioxaphosphorinan-5-yl)methyl] cytosine (cyclic HPMPC) were examined at four doses in 22 patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Two groups of six patients received a single dose of cyclic HPMPC at 1.5 or 3.0 mg/kg of body weight by each of the oral and intravenous routes in a random order with a 2-week washout period between administrations. Additional patients received single intravenous doses of cyclic HPMPC at 5.0 mg/kg (n = 6) or 7.5 mg/kg (n = 4). Serial serum and urine samples were collected at intervals over 24 h after dosing. The concentrations of cyclic HPMPC and cidofovir in serum and urine samples were determined by validated reverse- phase ion-pairing high-performance liquid chromatography methods with derivatization and fluorescence detection. After intravenous administration of cyclic HPMPC, concentrations of cyclic HPMPC declined in a biexponential manner, with a mean ± standard deviation half-life of 1.09 ± 0.12 h (n = 22). The pharmacokinetics of cyclic HPMPC were independent of dose over the dose range of 1.5 to 7.5 mg/kg. The total clearance of cyclic HPMPC from serum and the volume of distribution of intravenous cyclic HPMPC were 198 ± 39.6 ml/h/kg and 338 ± 65.1 ml/kg, respectively (n = 22). The renal clearance of cyclic HPMPC (132 ± 27.3 ml/h/kg; n = 22) exceeded the creatinine clearance (86.2 ± 16.3 ml/h/kg), indicating active tubular secretion. The cyclic HPMPC excreted in urine in 24 h accounted for 71.3% ± 16.0% of the administered dose. Cidofovir was formed from cyclic HPMPC in vivo with a time to the maximum concentration in serum of 1.64 ± 0.23 h (n = 22). Cidofovir levels declined in an apparent monoexponential manner, with a mean terminal half-life of 3.98 ± 1.26 h (n = 22). The cidofovir excreted in urine in 24 h accounted for 9.40% ± 2.33% of the administered cyclic HPMPC dose. Exposure to cidofovir after intravenous administration of cyclic HPMPC was dose proportional and was 14.9% of that from an equivalent dose of cidofovir. The present study suggests that intravenous cyclic HPMPC also has a lower potential for nephrotoxicity in humans compared to that of intravenous cidofovir. The oral bioavailabilities of cyclic HPMPC were 1.76% ± 1.48% and 3.10% ± 1.16% with the administration of doses of 1.5 and 3.0 mg/kg, respectively (n = 6 per dose). The maximum concentrations of cyclic HPMPC in serum were 0.036 ± 0.021 and 0.082 ± 0.038 μg/ml after the oral administration of doses of 1.5 and 3.0 mg/kg, respectively. Cidofovir reached quantifiable levels in the serum of only one patient for each of the 1.5- and 3.0-mg/kg oral cyclic HPMPC doses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)271-277
Number of pages7
JournalAntimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
Volume43
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1999

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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