Clinical laboratory studies of smokeless tobacco use

Bartosz Koszowski, Wallace B. Pickworth, Steven E. Meredith, Lynn C. Hull

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Nicotine is the primary addictive constituent of tobacco products. The purpose of the chapter is to review the findings of clinical smokeless tobacco (ST) laboratory studies of use characteristics, user preferences, and additive content. Assessment tools such as the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence-Smokeless Tobacco (FTND-ST), the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC), and the Product Evaluation Scale (PES) are discussed and their strengths and limitations noted. The absorption of nicotine from ST products is contingent upon both user behaviors and product characteristics. Particular emphasis is placed on characteristics that affect nicotine bioavailability and thus addiction liability. Some other factors that affect use, such as format, are mentioned. Projections and suggestions are offered for the future of clinical laboratory studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationSmokeless Tobacco Products
Subtitle of host publicationCharacteristics, Usage, Health Effects, and Regulatory Implications
Number of pages13
ISBN (Electronic)9780128181591
ISBN (Print)9780128181584
StatePublished - Jan 21 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Abuse liability
  • Addiction
  • Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence-Smokeless Tobacco (FTND-ST)
  • Health risks of tobacco use
  • Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC)
  • Nicotine bioavailability
  • Product Evaluation Scale (PES)
  • Smokeless tobacco
  • Snuff
  • Snus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)


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