Clinical features and outcomes associated with tracheostomy in congenital diaphragmatic hernia

Sahar Al Baroudi, Joseph M. Collaco, Pamela A. Lally, Matthew T. Harting, Eric B. Jelin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical features/outcomes associated with tracheostomy in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Methods: The study population consisted of liveborn infants reported to the CDH Study Group registry between 2007 and 2017. Subjects were identified as having a tracheostomy if they were discharged or transferred to another hospital with tracheostomy and/or on mechanical ventilation. Multivariate mixed models were used for analyses. Results: The registry population consisted of 5434 subjects, of whom 230 (4.2%) underwent tracheostomy placement. Only 3830 (70.5%) infants survived until discharge/transfer. The median age of tracheostomy placement was 3.3 months (range, 1.3-13.4 when known; n = 58 out of 154 survivors). The mortality rate among subjects with tracheostomy was 32.8% with a median of 37 days (range, 8-189 when known; n = 32 out of 75 deceased) ensuing between tracheostomy placement and death. The clinical features found to be associated with increased odds ratio of tracheostomy placement included male sex, birth weight, 5-minute APGAR score, defect size, liver in chest, ECMO use, cardiac abnormality, other congenital abnormalities, pulmonary hypertension, and the presence of a feeding tube. There was center variation in the rate of tracheostomy placement, which may be partially accounted for by disease severity, but not center size. Conclusion: There are several clinical features that are associated with increased likelihood of tracheostomy placement. Most deaths in subjects with tracheostomies occurred outside the immediate postoperative period. The utility of a standardized protocol for tracheostomy in infants with CDH should be considered.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)90-101
Number of pages12
JournalPediatric pulmonology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020


  • congenital diaphragmatic hernia
  • mechanical ventilators
  • tracheostomy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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