Clinical evaluation of Toxi · Prep(TM): A semiautomated solid-phase extraction system for screening of drugs in urine

David M. Steinberg, Lori J Sokoll, Kathy C. Bowles, James H. Nichols, Roger Roberts, Stephen K. Schultheis, C. Michael O'Donnell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

A prototype Toxi · Prep (TP) system that utilizes solid-phase extraction (SPE) has been developed as a method for broad-spectrum drug screening and identification of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) metabolites in urine. TP can simultaneously extract up to seven specimens while automating the process of sample extraction, washing, and elution onto a chromatogram. TP was compared with the Toxi · Lab A (TL-A) system for extraction of basic drugs only. In a blind study, 33 distinct drugs and metabolites were detected in 55 urines over 13 runs. Of the drug occurrences, 68.8% (141 of 205) were detected on both TP and TL-A. Of the 13 runs, quinidine and quinine, nortriptyline metabolites, and diphenhydramine were noted more frequently on TP than TL-A, whereas nicotine and metabolites, morphine, and methadone metabolites were more frequently noted on TL-A. Twenty specimens were analyzed for THC metabolites. Of the cases positive for THC metabolites, 100% (16 of 16) were positive by both methods. Time and motion studies for all runs proved an overall labor reduction for extraction and spotting by ~40%.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2099-2105
Number of pages7
JournalClinical Chemistry
Volume43
Issue number11
StatePublished - 1997

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Preclinical Drug Evaluations
Dronabinol
Solid Phase Extraction
Metabolites
Screening
Urine
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Nortriptyline
Diphenhydramine
Metrorrhagia
Quinidine
Time and Motion Studies
Quinine
Methadone
Nicotine
Morphine
Time and motion study
Washing
Personnel

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Biochemistry

Cite this

Steinberg, D. M., Sokoll, L. J., Bowles, K. C., Nichols, J. H., Roberts, R., Schultheis, S. K., & O'Donnell, C. M. (1997). Clinical evaluation of Toxi · Prep(TM): A semiautomated solid-phase extraction system for screening of drugs in urine. Clinical Chemistry, 43(11), 2099-2105.

Clinical evaluation of Toxi · Prep(TM) : A semiautomated solid-phase extraction system for screening of drugs in urine. / Steinberg, David M.; Sokoll, Lori J; Bowles, Kathy C.; Nichols, James H.; Roberts, Roger; Schultheis, Stephen K.; O'Donnell, C. Michael.

In: Clinical Chemistry, Vol. 43, No. 11, 1997, p. 2099-2105.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Steinberg, DM, Sokoll, LJ, Bowles, KC, Nichols, JH, Roberts, R, Schultheis, SK & O'Donnell, CM 1997, 'Clinical evaluation of Toxi · Prep(TM): A semiautomated solid-phase extraction system for screening of drugs in urine', Clinical Chemistry, vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 2099-2105.
Steinberg, David M. ; Sokoll, Lori J ; Bowles, Kathy C. ; Nichols, James H. ; Roberts, Roger ; Schultheis, Stephen K. ; O'Donnell, C. Michael. / Clinical evaluation of Toxi · Prep(TM) : A semiautomated solid-phase extraction system for screening of drugs in urine. In: Clinical Chemistry. 1997 ; Vol. 43, No. 11. pp. 2099-2105.
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