Clinical epidemiology of infectious disease among patients with chronic kidney disease

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Infectious disease is recognized as an important complication among patients with end-stage renal disease, contributing to excess morbidity and health care costs. However, recent epidemiological studies have revealed that even mild to moderate stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) substantially increase risk of infection. Regarding underlying mechanisms, evidence suggests various aspects of altered immune response in patients with CKD including impaired function of T cells, B cells and neutrophil. Multiple conditions surrounding CKD, such as older age, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease are important contributors in the increased susceptibility to infection in this population. In addition, several mechanisms impairing immune function have been hypothesized including accumulated uremic toxins, increased oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, low-grade inflammation, and mineral and bone disorders. In terms of prevention strategies, influenza and pneumococcal vaccines are most feasible and important. Nevertheless, the extent of vaccine utilization in CKD has not been well documented. In addition, antibody response to vaccination may be reduced in CKD patients, and thus a vaccine delivery strategy (e.g., dose and frequency) may need to be optimized among patients with CKD. Through this review, we demonstrate that infection is a major but underrecognized complication of CKD. As CKD is recognized as a serious public health issue, dedicated research is needed to better characterize the burden of infectious disease associated with CKD, understand the pathophysiology of infection in patients with CKD, and develop effective strategies to prevent infection and its sequela in this high risk population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalClinical and Experimental Nephrology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018

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Chronic Renal Insufficiency
Communicable Diseases
Epidemiology
Infection
Vaccines
Osteitis
Pneumococcal Vaccines
Influenza Vaccines
Health Care Costs
Population
Chronic Kidney Failure
Antibody Formation
Minerals
Epidemiologic Studies
Vaccination
Oxidative Stress
Neutrophils
B-Lymphocytes
Cardiovascular Diseases
Public Health

Keywords

  • Bloodstream infections
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Infections
  • Influenza vaccination
  • Pneumococcal vaccination
  • Pneumonia
  • Renal failure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Nephrology
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

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abstract = "Infectious disease is recognized as an important complication among patients with end-stage renal disease, contributing to excess morbidity and health care costs. However, recent epidemiological studies have revealed that even mild to moderate stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) substantially increase risk of infection. Regarding underlying mechanisms, evidence suggests various aspects of altered immune response in patients with CKD including impaired function of T cells, B cells and neutrophil. Multiple conditions surrounding CKD, such as older age, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease are important contributors in the increased susceptibility to infection in this population. In addition, several mechanisms impairing immune function have been hypothesized including accumulated uremic toxins, increased oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, low-grade inflammation, and mineral and bone disorders. In terms of prevention strategies, influenza and pneumococcal vaccines are most feasible and important. Nevertheless, the extent of vaccine utilization in CKD has not been well documented. In addition, antibody response to vaccination may be reduced in CKD patients, and thus a vaccine delivery strategy (e.g., dose and frequency) may need to be optimized among patients with CKD. Through this review, we demonstrate that infection is a major but underrecognized complication of CKD. As CKD is recognized as a serious public health issue, dedicated research is needed to better characterize the burden of infectious disease associated with CKD, understand the pathophysiology of infection in patients with CKD, and develop effective strategies to prevent infection and its sequela in this high risk population.",
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AB - Infectious disease is recognized as an important complication among patients with end-stage renal disease, contributing to excess morbidity and health care costs. However, recent epidemiological studies have revealed that even mild to moderate stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) substantially increase risk of infection. Regarding underlying mechanisms, evidence suggests various aspects of altered immune response in patients with CKD including impaired function of T cells, B cells and neutrophil. Multiple conditions surrounding CKD, such as older age, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease are important contributors in the increased susceptibility to infection in this population. In addition, several mechanisms impairing immune function have been hypothesized including accumulated uremic toxins, increased oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, low-grade inflammation, and mineral and bone disorders. In terms of prevention strategies, influenza and pneumococcal vaccines are most feasible and important. Nevertheless, the extent of vaccine utilization in CKD has not been well documented. In addition, antibody response to vaccination may be reduced in CKD patients, and thus a vaccine delivery strategy (e.g., dose and frequency) may need to be optimized among patients with CKD. Through this review, we demonstrate that infection is a major but underrecognized complication of CKD. As CKD is recognized as a serious public health issue, dedicated research is needed to better characterize the burden of infectious disease associated with CKD, understand the pathophysiology of infection in patients with CKD, and develop effective strategies to prevent infection and its sequela in this high risk population.

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