Clinical Correlations of Novel Autoantibodies in Patients with Dry Eye

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Abstract

Background: Diagnostic criteria for Sjögren's syndrome (SS) are continually being updated in pursuit of more precise and earlier diagnosis to prevent its complications. Owing to the high rate of false negative traditional serological markers, the need for better serological testing remains. Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of three recently discovered novel autoantibodies, anti-salivary gland protein 1 (SP1), anti-carbonic anhydrase 6 (CA6), and anti-parotid secretory protein (PSP), in a cohort of dry eye patients with suspected underlying inflammatory/autoimmune disease. Methods: Medical records of 136 patients with a primary diagnosis of dry eye who underwent laboratory testing between April 2014 and July 2017 were reviewed retrospectively. Data regarding demographic information, ocular and systemic symptoms, previous medical diagnoses, serological test results, and minor salivary gland biopsy results were collected. Dry eye evaluations included tear osmolarity, Schirmer test without anesthesia, conjunctival lissamine green staining, and corneal fluorescein staining in the order listed here. Results: Of the 136 patients, 9 (9/136, 6.6%) presented with a history of SS, and 9 additional patients (9/127, 7%) received a new diagnosis of SS as a result of evaluations. Fifty-six patients (56/136, 41%) tested positive for at least one of the novel autoantibodies. Fifty-four percent (6/11) of patients with primary SS who underwent the novel serological testing had a positive anti-PSP. Of those, 2 (2/11, 18%) had negative traditional serology and had to undergo minor salivary gland biopsy for definitive diagnosis. Anti-CA6 was associated with increased corneal and conjunctival staining after adjusting for age, sex, and other serologic markers (HR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.20-1.97, and p = 0.009 and HR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.04-1.76, and p = 0.02, respectively). Conclusions: This cross-sectional study demonstrated that anti-CA6 is seen in patients with severe aqueous-deficient dry eye. Whether these patients have an early stage of SS or a different type of autoimmune condition may be determined through longitudinal studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Number of pages1
JournalJournal of immunology research
Volume2019
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

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Autoantibodies
Minor Salivary Glands
Staining and Labeling
Salivary Proteins and Peptides
Biopsy
Serologic Tests
Serology
Fluorescein
Tears
Osmolar Concentration
Autoimmune Diseases
Medical Records
Longitudinal Studies
Early Diagnosis
Proteins
Anesthesia
Cross-Sectional Studies
Demography
carbonic anhydrase VI

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

Cite this

@article{a308a89171954a119b0b0b402a7c340a,
title = "Clinical Correlations of Novel Autoantibodies in Patients with Dry Eye",
abstract = "Background: Diagnostic criteria for Sj{\"o}gren's syndrome (SS) are continually being updated in pursuit of more precise and earlier diagnosis to prevent its complications. Owing to the high rate of false negative traditional serological markers, the need for better serological testing remains. Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of three recently discovered novel autoantibodies, anti-salivary gland protein 1 (SP1), anti-carbonic anhydrase 6 (CA6), and anti-parotid secretory protein (PSP), in a cohort of dry eye patients with suspected underlying inflammatory/autoimmune disease. Methods: Medical records of 136 patients with a primary diagnosis of dry eye who underwent laboratory testing between April 2014 and July 2017 were reviewed retrospectively. Data regarding demographic information, ocular and systemic symptoms, previous medical diagnoses, serological test results, and minor salivary gland biopsy results were collected. Dry eye evaluations included tear osmolarity, Schirmer test without anesthesia, conjunctival lissamine green staining, and corneal fluorescein staining in the order listed here. Results: Of the 136 patients, 9 (9/136, 6.6{\%}) presented with a history of SS, and 9 additional patients (9/127, 7{\%}) received a new diagnosis of SS as a result of evaluations. Fifty-six patients (56/136, 41{\%}) tested positive for at least one of the novel autoantibodies. Fifty-four percent (6/11) of patients with primary SS who underwent the novel serological testing had a positive anti-PSP. Of those, 2 (2/11, 18{\%}) had negative traditional serology and had to undergo minor salivary gland biopsy for definitive diagnosis. Anti-CA6 was associated with increased corneal and conjunctival staining after adjusting for age, sex, and other serologic markers (HR = 1.5, 95{\%} CI = 1.20-1.97, and p = 0.009 and HR = 1.4, 95{\%} CI = 1.04-1.76, and p = 0.02, respectively). Conclusions: This cross-sectional study demonstrated that anti-CA6 is seen in patients with severe aqueous-deficient dry eye. Whether these patients have an early stage of SS or a different type of autoimmune condition may be determined through longitudinal studies.",
author = "Sezen Karakus and Alan Baer and Akpek, {Esen K}",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1155/2019/7935451",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "2019",
journal = "Journal of Immunology Research",
issn = "2314-8861",
publisher = "Hindawi Publishing Corporation",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Clinical Correlations of Novel Autoantibodies in Patients with Dry Eye

AU - Karakus, Sezen

AU - Baer, Alan

AU - Akpek, Esen K

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Background: Diagnostic criteria for Sjögren's syndrome (SS) are continually being updated in pursuit of more precise and earlier diagnosis to prevent its complications. Owing to the high rate of false negative traditional serological markers, the need for better serological testing remains. Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of three recently discovered novel autoantibodies, anti-salivary gland protein 1 (SP1), anti-carbonic anhydrase 6 (CA6), and anti-parotid secretory protein (PSP), in a cohort of dry eye patients with suspected underlying inflammatory/autoimmune disease. Methods: Medical records of 136 patients with a primary diagnosis of dry eye who underwent laboratory testing between April 2014 and July 2017 were reviewed retrospectively. Data regarding demographic information, ocular and systemic symptoms, previous medical diagnoses, serological test results, and minor salivary gland biopsy results were collected. Dry eye evaluations included tear osmolarity, Schirmer test without anesthesia, conjunctival lissamine green staining, and corneal fluorescein staining in the order listed here. Results: Of the 136 patients, 9 (9/136, 6.6%) presented with a history of SS, and 9 additional patients (9/127, 7%) received a new diagnosis of SS as a result of evaluations. Fifty-six patients (56/136, 41%) tested positive for at least one of the novel autoantibodies. Fifty-four percent (6/11) of patients with primary SS who underwent the novel serological testing had a positive anti-PSP. Of those, 2 (2/11, 18%) had negative traditional serology and had to undergo minor salivary gland biopsy for definitive diagnosis. Anti-CA6 was associated with increased corneal and conjunctival staining after adjusting for age, sex, and other serologic markers (HR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.20-1.97, and p = 0.009 and HR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.04-1.76, and p = 0.02, respectively). Conclusions: This cross-sectional study demonstrated that anti-CA6 is seen in patients with severe aqueous-deficient dry eye. Whether these patients have an early stage of SS or a different type of autoimmune condition may be determined through longitudinal studies.

AB - Background: Diagnostic criteria for Sjögren's syndrome (SS) are continually being updated in pursuit of more precise and earlier diagnosis to prevent its complications. Owing to the high rate of false negative traditional serological markers, the need for better serological testing remains. Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of three recently discovered novel autoantibodies, anti-salivary gland protein 1 (SP1), anti-carbonic anhydrase 6 (CA6), and anti-parotid secretory protein (PSP), in a cohort of dry eye patients with suspected underlying inflammatory/autoimmune disease. Methods: Medical records of 136 patients with a primary diagnosis of dry eye who underwent laboratory testing between April 2014 and July 2017 were reviewed retrospectively. Data regarding demographic information, ocular and systemic symptoms, previous medical diagnoses, serological test results, and minor salivary gland biopsy results were collected. Dry eye evaluations included tear osmolarity, Schirmer test without anesthesia, conjunctival lissamine green staining, and corneal fluorescein staining in the order listed here. Results: Of the 136 patients, 9 (9/136, 6.6%) presented with a history of SS, and 9 additional patients (9/127, 7%) received a new diagnosis of SS as a result of evaluations. Fifty-six patients (56/136, 41%) tested positive for at least one of the novel autoantibodies. Fifty-four percent (6/11) of patients with primary SS who underwent the novel serological testing had a positive anti-PSP. Of those, 2 (2/11, 18%) had negative traditional serology and had to undergo minor salivary gland biopsy for definitive diagnosis. Anti-CA6 was associated with increased corneal and conjunctival staining after adjusting for age, sex, and other serologic markers (HR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.20-1.97, and p = 0.009 and HR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.04-1.76, and p = 0.02, respectively). Conclusions: This cross-sectional study demonstrated that anti-CA6 is seen in patients with severe aqueous-deficient dry eye. Whether these patients have an early stage of SS or a different type of autoimmune condition may be determined through longitudinal studies.

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