Clinical characterization of the HOXA1 syndrome BSAS variant

Thomas Bosley, M. A. Salih, I. A. Alorainy, D. T. Oystreck, M. Nester, K. K. Abu-Amero, M. A. Tischfield, E. C. Engle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The Bosley-Salih-Alorainy syndrome (BSAS) variant of the congenital human HOXA1 syndrome results from autosomal recessive truncating HOXA1 mutations. We describe the currently recognized spectrum of ocular motility, inner ear malformations, cerebrovascular anomalies, and cognitive function. METHODS: We examined nine affected individuals from five consanguineous Saudi Arabian families, all of whom harbored the same I75-I76insG homozygous mutation in the HOXA1 gene. Patients underwent complete neurologic, neuro-ophthalmologic, orthoptic, and neuropsychological examinations. Six individuals had CT, and six had MRI of the head. RESULTS: All nine individuals had bilateral Duane retraction syndrome (DRS) type 3, but extent of abduction and adduction varied between eyes and individuals. Eight patients were deaf with the common cavity deformity of the inner ear, while one patient had normal hearing and skull base development. Six had delayed motor milestones, and two had cognitive and behavioral abnormalities meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria for autism spectrum disorder. MRI of the orbits, extraocular muscles, brainstem, and supratentorial brain appeared normal. All six appropriately studied patients had cerebrovascular malformations ranging from unilateral internal carotid artery hypoplasia to bilateral agenesis. CONCLUSIONS: This report extends the Bosley-Salih-Alorainy syndrome phenotype and documents the clinical variability resulting from identical HOXA1 mutations within an isolated ethnic population. Similarities between this syndrome and thalidomide embryopathy suggest that the teratogenic effects of early thalidomide exposure in humans may be due to interaction with the HOX cascade.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1245-1253
Number of pages9
JournalNeurology
Volume69
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2007
Externally publishedYes

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Thalidomide
Inner Ear
Mutation
Oculomotor Muscles
Duane Retraction Syndrome
Orthoptics
Fetal Diseases
Skull Base
Internal Carotid Artery
Orbit
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Cognition
Nervous System
Hearing
Brain Stem
Head
Phenotype
Athabaskan brainstem dysgenesis
Brain
Population

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

Bosley, T., Salih, M. A., Alorainy, I. A., Oystreck, D. T., Nester, M., Abu-Amero, K. K., ... Engle, E. C. (2007). Clinical characterization of the HOXA1 syndrome BSAS variant. Neurology, 69(12), 1245-1253. https://doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000276947.59704.cf

Clinical characterization of the HOXA1 syndrome BSAS variant. / Bosley, Thomas; Salih, M. A.; Alorainy, I. A.; Oystreck, D. T.; Nester, M.; Abu-Amero, K. K.; Tischfield, M. A.; Engle, E. C.

In: Neurology, Vol. 69, No. 12, 09.2007, p. 1245-1253.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Bosley, T, Salih, MA, Alorainy, IA, Oystreck, DT, Nester, M, Abu-Amero, KK, Tischfield, MA & Engle, EC 2007, 'Clinical characterization of the HOXA1 syndrome BSAS variant', Neurology, vol. 69, no. 12, pp. 1245-1253. https://doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000276947.59704.cf
Bosley T, Salih MA, Alorainy IA, Oystreck DT, Nester M, Abu-Amero KK et al. Clinical characterization of the HOXA1 syndrome BSAS variant. Neurology. 2007 Sep;69(12):1245-1253. https://doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000276947.59704.cf
Bosley, Thomas ; Salih, M. A. ; Alorainy, I. A. ; Oystreck, D. T. ; Nester, M. ; Abu-Amero, K. K. ; Tischfield, M. A. ; Engle, E. C. / Clinical characterization of the HOXA1 syndrome BSAS variant. In: Neurology. 2007 ; Vol. 69, No. 12. pp. 1245-1253.
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