Clinical and diagnostic tests for shoulder disorders: A critical review

Edward G. McFarland, Juan Garzon-Muvdi, Xiaofeng Jia, Pingal Desai, Steve A. Petersen

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The shoulder is one of the most complex joints in the human body and, as such, presents an evaluation and diagnostic challenge. The first steps in its evaluation are obtaining an accurate history and physical examination and evaluating conventional radiography. The use of other imaging modalities (eg, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography) should be based on the type of additional information needed. The goals of this study were to review the current limitations of evidence-based medicine with regard to shoulder examination and to assess the rationale for and against the use of diagnostic physical examination tests.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)328-332
Number of pages5
JournalBritish Journal of Sports Medicine
Issue number5
StatePublished - Apr 2010

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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