Classification of residents in nursing homes in Tuscany (Italy) using Resource Utilization Groups Version III (RUG-III)

Paolo Francesconi, Elisabetta Cantini, Emanuela Bavazzano, Fabrizio Lauretani, Stefania Bandinelli, Eva Buiatti, Luigi Ferrucci

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Background and aims: Samples of nursing homes in Tuscany (Italy) classify their residents and determine their case-mix according to the Resource Utilization Groups System, Version III (RUG-III). Methods: A large sample of nursing homes was selected, based on willingness to participate, representation of both public and private institutions, and wide geographic representation. Two registered nurses assessed all residents using the RUG questionnaire. The information collected was then used to group residents into 44 RUGs, and facility-specific case-mix indices were calculated using the RUG-specific weights previously validated in Italy. Results: A total of 3981 residents from 93 nursing homes were assessed. Most residents were over 75 years old (87.4%) and women (68.6%). A large percentage was classified into RUGs within the following primary categories: reduced physical function (33.6%), impaired cognition (17.6%) and clinically complex (17.6%). The resulting nursing home case-mix indices ranged from 0.627 to 1.108 (mean 0.807±0.110). No significant association was found between type of facility, level of fees, or extent of staff in the nursing homes and their case-mix indices. Conclusions: RUG-III can provide information on types of nursing home residents and their care needs. This is useful for monitoring and evaluating long-term care services for the elderly, and allows for more effective planning and allocation of staffing and financial resources.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)133-140
Number of pages8
JournalAging clinical and experimental research
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Case-mix classification
  • Long-term care
  • Nursing home
  • RUG-III system

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aging


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