Classical maple syrup urine disease and brain development: Principles of management and formula design

Kevin A. Strauss, Bridget Wardley, Donna Robinson, Christine Hendrickson, Nicholas L. Rider, Erik G. Puffenberger, Diana Shelmer, Ann B. Moser, D. Holmes Morton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase deficiency results in complex and volatile metabolic derangements that threaten brain development. Treatment for classical maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) should address this underlying physiology while also protecting children from nutrient deficiencies. Based on a 20-year experience managing 79 patients, we designed a study formula to (1) optimize transport of seven amino acids (Tyr, Trp, His, Met, Thr, Gln, Phe) that compete with branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) for entry into the brain via a common transporter (LAT1), (2) compensate for episodic depletions of glutamine, glutamate, and alanine caused by reverse transamination, and (3) correct deficiencies of omega-3 essential fatty acids, zinc, and selenium widespread among MSUD patients. The formula was enriched with LAT1 amino acid substrates, glutamine, alanine, zinc, selenium, and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n - 3). Fifteen Old Order Mennonite children were started on study formula between birth and 34 months of age and seen at least monthly in the office. Amino acid levels were checked once weekly and more often during illnesses. All children grew and developed normally over a period of 14-33 months. Energy demand, leucine tolerance, and protein accretion were tightly linked during periods of normal growth. Rapid shifts to net protein degradation occurred during illnesses. At baseline, most LAT1 substrates varied inversely with plasma leucine, and their calculated rates of brain uptake were 20-68% below normal. Treatment with study formula increased plasma concentrations of LAT1 substrates and normalized their calculated uptakes into the nervous system. Red cell membrane omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and serum zinc and selenium levels increased on study formula. However, selenium and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n - 3) levels remained below normal. During the study period, hospitalizations decreased from 0.35 to 0.14 per patient per year. There were 28 hospitalizations managed with MSUD hyperalimentation solution; 86% were precipitated by common infections, especially vomiting and gastroenteritis. The large majority of catabolic illnesses were managed successfully at home using 'sick-day' formula and frequent amino acid monitoring. We conclude that the study formula is safe and effective for the treatment of classical MSUD. In principle, dietary enrichment protects the brain against deficiency of amino acids used for protein accretion, neurotransmitter synthesis, and methyl group transfer. Although the pathophysiology of MSUD can be addressed through rational formula design, this does not replace the need for vigilant clinical monitoring, frequent measurement of the complete amino acid profile, and ongoing dietary adjustments that match nutritional intake to the metabolic demands of growth and illness.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)333-345
Number of pages13
JournalMolecular Genetics and Metabolism
Volume99
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2010

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Maple Syrup Urine Disease
Brain
Selenium
Amino Acids
Zinc
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Glutamine
Leucine
Alanine
Hospitalization
Substrates
3-Methyl-2-Oxobutanoate Dehydrogenase (Lipoamide)
Plasmas
Branched Chain Amino Acids
Essential Fatty Acids
Sick Leave
Proteins
alpha-Linolenic Acid
Docosahexaenoic Acids
Monitoring

Keywords

  • Alpha-ketoisocaproic acid
  • Amino acid transport
  • Blood-brain barrier
  • Brain development
  • Branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase
  • Leucine
  • Maple syrup urine disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Endocrinology
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

Strauss, K. A., Wardley, B., Robinson, D., Hendrickson, C., Rider, N. L., Puffenberger, E. G., ... Morton, D. H. (2010). Classical maple syrup urine disease and brain development: Principles of management and formula design. Molecular Genetics and Metabolism, 99(4), 333-345. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2009.12.007

Classical maple syrup urine disease and brain development : Principles of management and formula design. / Strauss, Kevin A.; Wardley, Bridget; Robinson, Donna; Hendrickson, Christine; Rider, Nicholas L.; Puffenberger, Erik G.; Shelmer, Diana; Moser, Ann B.; Morton, D. Holmes.

In: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism, Vol. 99, No. 4, 04.2010, p. 333-345.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Strauss, KA, Wardley, B, Robinson, D, Hendrickson, C, Rider, NL, Puffenberger, EG, Shelmer, D, Moser, AB & Morton, DH 2010, 'Classical maple syrup urine disease and brain development: Principles of management and formula design', Molecular Genetics and Metabolism, vol. 99, no. 4, pp. 333-345. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2009.12.007
Strauss, Kevin A. ; Wardley, Bridget ; Robinson, Donna ; Hendrickson, Christine ; Rider, Nicholas L. ; Puffenberger, Erik G. ; Shelmer, Diana ; Moser, Ann B. ; Morton, D. Holmes. / Classical maple syrup urine disease and brain development : Principles of management and formula design. In: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism. 2010 ; Vol. 99, No. 4. pp. 333-345.
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