Hyperinsulinism, hypercortisolism, hypothyroidism, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and growth hormone deficiency are often associated with obesity. Insulin is a potent anabolic hormone. Treatment with insulin or some antidiabetic drugs results in weight gain through several mechanisms. Insulinoma is a rare cause of hyperinsulinism associated with hypoglycemia, hunger, and rapid weight gain. The etiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is complex and multifactorial. PCOS is often associated with central obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperandrogenemia. Excessive glucocorticoid exposure, such as Cushing's syndrome, results in central obesity, sarcopenia, osteoporosis, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia.
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