Citrus aurantium and synephrine alkaloids in the treatment of overweight and obesity: An update

S. Haaz, K. R. Fontaine, G. Cutter, N. Limdi, S. Perumean-Chaney, D. B. Allison

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Obesity is a major health problem facing the developed and developing world. Efforts by individuals, health professionals, educators, and policy makers to combat the escalating trend of growing obesity prevalence have been multifaceted and mixed in outcome. Various dietary supplements have been marketed to reduce obesity. These products have been suggested to accomplish this by decreasing energy intake and energy absorption, and/or increasing metabolic rate. Ephedra, one such supplement, was banned from sale in the US market because of concerns about adverse events. Another substance, Citrus aurantium, which contains several compounds including synephrine alkaloids, has been suggested as a safe alternative. This review examines the evidence for safety and efficacy of C. aurantium and synephrine alkaloids as examined in animal studies, clinical weight loss trials, acute physiologic studies and case reports. Although at least three reviews of C. aurantium have been published, our review expands upon these by: (i) distinguishing and evaluating the efficacy of C. aurantium and related compounds; (ii) including results from previously unreviewed research; (iii) incorporating recent case reports that serve to highlight, in an anecdotal way, potential adverse events related to the use of C. aurantium and related compounds; and (iv) offering recommendations to guide the design of future trials to evaluate the safety and efficacy of C. aurantium. While some evidence is promising, we conclude that larger and more rigorous clinical trials are necessary to draw adequate conclusions regarding the safety and efficacy of C. aurantium and synephrine alkaloids for promoting weight loss.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)79-88
Number of pages10
JournalObesity Reviews
Volume7
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2006

Fingerprint

Synephrine
Citrus
Alkaloids
Obesity
Safety
Therapeutics
Weight Loss
Ephedra
Health Educators
Dietary Supplements
Health Policy
Energy Intake
Administrative Personnel
Evoked Potentials
Clinical Trials

Keywords

  • Bitter orange
  • Citrus aurantium
  • Herbal supplements
  • Synephrine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Endocrinology

Cite this

Haaz, S., Fontaine, K. R., Cutter, G., Limdi, N., Perumean-Chaney, S., & Allison, D. B. (2006). Citrus aurantium and synephrine alkaloids in the treatment of overweight and obesity: An update. Obesity Reviews, 7(1), 79-88. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-789X.2006.00195.x

Citrus aurantium and synephrine alkaloids in the treatment of overweight and obesity : An update. / Haaz, S.; Fontaine, K. R.; Cutter, G.; Limdi, N.; Perumean-Chaney, S.; Allison, D. B.

In: Obesity Reviews, Vol. 7, No. 1, 02.2006, p. 79-88.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Haaz, S, Fontaine, KR, Cutter, G, Limdi, N, Perumean-Chaney, S & Allison, DB 2006, 'Citrus aurantium and synephrine alkaloids in the treatment of overweight and obesity: An update', Obesity Reviews, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 79-88. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-789X.2006.00195.x
Haaz, S. ; Fontaine, K. R. ; Cutter, G. ; Limdi, N. ; Perumean-Chaney, S. ; Allison, D. B. / Citrus aurantium and synephrine alkaloids in the treatment of overweight and obesity : An update. In: Obesity Reviews. 2006 ; Vol. 7, No. 1. pp. 79-88.
@article{864b8cfb88a74037bcfcb7021d2f54f8,
title = "Citrus aurantium and synephrine alkaloids in the treatment of overweight and obesity: An update",
abstract = "Obesity is a major health problem facing the developed and developing world. Efforts by individuals, health professionals, educators, and policy makers to combat the escalating trend of growing obesity prevalence have been multifaceted and mixed in outcome. Various dietary supplements have been marketed to reduce obesity. These products have been suggested to accomplish this by decreasing energy intake and energy absorption, and/or increasing metabolic rate. Ephedra, one such supplement, was banned from sale in the US market because of concerns about adverse events. Another substance, Citrus aurantium, which contains several compounds including synephrine alkaloids, has been suggested as a safe alternative. This review examines the evidence for safety and efficacy of C. aurantium and synephrine alkaloids as examined in animal studies, clinical weight loss trials, acute physiologic studies and case reports. Although at least three reviews of C. aurantium have been published, our review expands upon these by: (i) distinguishing and evaluating the efficacy of C. aurantium and related compounds; (ii) including results from previously unreviewed research; (iii) incorporating recent case reports that serve to highlight, in an anecdotal way, potential adverse events related to the use of C. aurantium and related compounds; and (iv) offering recommendations to guide the design of future trials to evaluate the safety and efficacy of C. aurantium. While some evidence is promising, we conclude that larger and more rigorous clinical trials are necessary to draw adequate conclusions regarding the safety and efficacy of C. aurantium and synephrine alkaloids for promoting weight loss.",
keywords = "Bitter orange, Citrus aurantium, Herbal supplements, Synephrine",
author = "S. Haaz and Fontaine, {K. R.} and G. Cutter and N. Limdi and S. Perumean-Chaney and Allison, {D. B.}",
year = "2006",
month = "2",
doi = "10.1111/j.1467-789X.2006.00195.x",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "7",
pages = "79--88",
journal = "Obesity Reviews",
issn = "1467-7881",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Citrus aurantium and synephrine alkaloids in the treatment of overweight and obesity

T2 - An update

AU - Haaz, S.

AU - Fontaine, K. R.

AU - Cutter, G.

AU - Limdi, N.

AU - Perumean-Chaney, S.

AU - Allison, D. B.

PY - 2006/2

Y1 - 2006/2

N2 - Obesity is a major health problem facing the developed and developing world. Efforts by individuals, health professionals, educators, and policy makers to combat the escalating trend of growing obesity prevalence have been multifaceted and mixed in outcome. Various dietary supplements have been marketed to reduce obesity. These products have been suggested to accomplish this by decreasing energy intake and energy absorption, and/or increasing metabolic rate. Ephedra, one such supplement, was banned from sale in the US market because of concerns about adverse events. Another substance, Citrus aurantium, which contains several compounds including synephrine alkaloids, has been suggested as a safe alternative. This review examines the evidence for safety and efficacy of C. aurantium and synephrine alkaloids as examined in animal studies, clinical weight loss trials, acute physiologic studies and case reports. Although at least three reviews of C. aurantium have been published, our review expands upon these by: (i) distinguishing and evaluating the efficacy of C. aurantium and related compounds; (ii) including results from previously unreviewed research; (iii) incorporating recent case reports that serve to highlight, in an anecdotal way, potential adverse events related to the use of C. aurantium and related compounds; and (iv) offering recommendations to guide the design of future trials to evaluate the safety and efficacy of C. aurantium. While some evidence is promising, we conclude that larger and more rigorous clinical trials are necessary to draw adequate conclusions regarding the safety and efficacy of C. aurantium and synephrine alkaloids for promoting weight loss.

AB - Obesity is a major health problem facing the developed and developing world. Efforts by individuals, health professionals, educators, and policy makers to combat the escalating trend of growing obesity prevalence have been multifaceted and mixed in outcome. Various dietary supplements have been marketed to reduce obesity. These products have been suggested to accomplish this by decreasing energy intake and energy absorption, and/or increasing metabolic rate. Ephedra, one such supplement, was banned from sale in the US market because of concerns about adverse events. Another substance, Citrus aurantium, which contains several compounds including synephrine alkaloids, has been suggested as a safe alternative. This review examines the evidence for safety and efficacy of C. aurantium and synephrine alkaloids as examined in animal studies, clinical weight loss trials, acute physiologic studies and case reports. Although at least three reviews of C. aurantium have been published, our review expands upon these by: (i) distinguishing and evaluating the efficacy of C. aurantium and related compounds; (ii) including results from previously unreviewed research; (iii) incorporating recent case reports that serve to highlight, in an anecdotal way, potential adverse events related to the use of C. aurantium and related compounds; and (iv) offering recommendations to guide the design of future trials to evaluate the safety and efficacy of C. aurantium. While some evidence is promising, we conclude that larger and more rigorous clinical trials are necessary to draw adequate conclusions regarding the safety and efficacy of C. aurantium and synephrine alkaloids for promoting weight loss.

KW - Bitter orange

KW - Citrus aurantium

KW - Herbal supplements

KW - Synephrine

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33645100589&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33645100589&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2006.00195.x

DO - 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2006.00195.x

M3 - Article

C2 - 16436104

AN - SCOPUS:33645100589

VL - 7

SP - 79

EP - 88

JO - Obesity Reviews

JF - Obesity Reviews

SN - 1467-7881

IS - 1

ER -