Cigarette smoking, oxidative stress, the anti-oxidant response through Nrf2 signaling, and Age-related Macular Degeneration

Marisol Cano, Rajesh Thimmalappula, Masashi Fujihara, Norihiro Nagai, Michael Sporn, Ai Ling Wang, Arthur H. Neufeld, Shyam Biswal, James T. Handa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness among the elderly. While excellent treatment has emerged for neovascular disease, treatment for early AMD is lacking due to an incomplete understanding of the early molecular events. Cigarette smoking is the strongest epidemiologic risk factor, yet we do not understand how smoking contributes to AMD. Smoking related oxidative damage during the early phases of AMD may play an important role. This review explores how cigarette smoking and oxidative stress to the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) might contribute to AMD, and how the transcription factor Nrf2 can activate a cytoprotective response.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)652-664
Number of pages13
JournalVision Research
Volume50
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2010

Keywords

  • Age-related Macular Degeneration
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Nrf2
  • Oxidative stress
  • Retinal pigmented epithelium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems

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