Cigarette smoking in opioid-dependent pregnant women: Neonatal and maternal outcomes

Hendrée E. Jones, Sarah H. Heil, Michelle Tuten, Margaret S. Chisolm, Julianne M. Foster, Kevin E. O'Grady, Karol Kaltenbach

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

63 Scopus citations


Background: The relationship between cigarette smoking and neonatal and maternal clinical outcomes among opioid-agonist-treated pregnant patients is sparse. Objectives: (1) Is smoking measured at study entry related to neonatal and maternal outcomes in pregnant women receiving opioid-agonist medication? (2) Is it more informative to use a multi-item measure of smoking dependence or a single-item measure of daily smoking? (3) Is the relationship between smoking at study entry and outcomes different between methadone and buprenorphine? Methods: Secondary analyses examined the ability of the tobacco dependence screener (TDS) and self-reported past 30-day daily average number of cigarettes smoked, both measured at study entry, to predict 12 neonatal and 9 maternal outcomes in 131 opioid-agonist-maintained pregnant participants. Results: Past 30-day daily average number of cigarettes smoked was significantly positively associated with total amount of morphine (mg) needed to treat neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.09), number of days medicated for NAS, AOR = 1.04 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.06), neonatal length of hospital stay in days, AOR = 1.03 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.05), and negatively associated with 1-AOR = .995 (95% CI: .991,.999) and 5-min Apgar scores, AOR = .996 (95% CI: .994,.998). Simple effect tests of the two significant TDS × medication condition effects found TDS was unrelated to non-normal presentation and amount of voucher money earned in the methadone [AORs = .90 (95% CI: .74, 1.08, p> .24) and 1.0 (95% CI: .97, 1.03, p> .9)] but significant in the buprenorphine condition [AORs = 1.57 (95% CI: 1.01, 2.45, p< .05) and 1.08 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.12, p< .01)]. Conclusions: Regardless of prenatal methadone or buprenorphine exposure, heavier cigarette smoking was associated with more compromised birth outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)271-277
Number of pages7
JournalDrug and alcohol dependence
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 1 2013


  • Agonist treatment
  • Neonatal abstinence syndrome
  • Neonate
  • Opioid dependence
  • Pregnancy
  • Smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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