Cigarette smoking and short-term addiction treatment outcome

P. T. Harrell, I. D. Montoya, K. L. Preston, L. M. Juliano, D. A. Gorelick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Cigarette smoking is common among patients in cocaine and opioid dependence treatment, and may influence treatment outcome. We addressed this issue in a secondary analysis of data from an outpatient clinical trial of buprenorphine treatment for concurrent cocaine and opioid dependence (13 weeks, N= 200). The association between cigarette smoking (lifetime cigarette smoking status, number of cigarettes smoked per day prior to study entry) and short-term treatment outcome (% of urine samples positive for cocaine or opioids, treatment retention) was evaluated with analysis of covariance, bivariate correlations, and multivariate linear regression. Nicotine-dependent smokers (66% of participants) had a significantly higher percentage of cocaine-positive urine samples than non-smokers (12% of participants) (76% vs. 62%), but did not differ in percentage of opioid-positive urine samples or treatment retention. Number of cigarettes smoked per day at baseline was positively associated with percentage of cocaine-positive urine samples, even after controlling for baseline sociodemographic and drug use characteristics, but was not significantly associated with percentage of opioid-positive urine samples or treatment retention. These results suggest that cigarette smoking is associated with poorer short-term outcome of outpatient treatment for cocaine dependence, but perhaps not of concurrent opioid dependence, and support the importance of offering smoking cessation treatment to cocaine-dependent patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)161-166
Number of pages6
JournalDrug and alcohol dependence
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 1 2011


  • Cigarettes
  • Cocaine
  • Nicotine
  • Opiates
  • Opioids
  • Treatment outcome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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