Chronic kidney disease and risk for gastrointestinal bleeding in the community: The atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC) study

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Background and objectives Patients on dialysis are known to have higher risk for gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. However, data on mild to moderate CKD, particularly elevated albuminuria, are limited. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Among 11,088 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, we investigated the association of eGFR and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) with risk for hospitalization with GI bleeding. Kidney measures were assessed at visit four (1996–1998), and follow-up was continued through 2011. Results During a median follow-up of 13.9 years, 686 first incident hospitalizations with GI bleeding were observed (incidence rate, 4.9 per 1000 person-years [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 4.5 to 5.3]). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models revealed that both lower eGFR and higher ACR were associated with higher risk for GI bleeding. With eGFR≥90 ml/min per 1.73 m2 as a reference, risk for GI bleeding was significant in moderately decreased eGFR of 30–59 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (hazard ratio [HR], 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13 to 2.02), and was highest in severely decreased eGFR<30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (HR, 7.06; 95% CI, 3.91 to 12.76). Compared with ACR<10 mg/g, risk for GI bleeding became significantly higher in mild albuminuria with ACR 10–29 mg/g (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.69), and was nearly double in moderate and severe albuminuria (HR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.66 to 2.71 for ACR 30–299 mg/g, and HR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.33 to 3.22 for ACR≥300 mg/g). These results were largely consistent in demographic and clinical subgroups and independent of incident cardiovascular events or dialysis during follow-up. Conclusions Individuals with even mild to moderate CKD warrant clinical attention regarding the risk of hospitalization with GI bleeding.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1735-1743
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 7 2016


  • Albumins
  • Albuminuria
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Attention
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Chronic kidney failure
  • Chronic renal failure
  • Creatinine
  • Follow-Up studies
  • Gastrointestinal complications
  • Glomerular filtration rate
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Kidney
  • Proportional hazards models
  • Proteinuria
  • Renal dialysis
  • Renal insufficiency, chronic
  • Risk

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
  • Nephrology
  • Transplantation

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