Cholera epidemic in Guinea-Bissau (2008): The importance of "Place"

Francisco J. Luquero, Cunhate Na Banga, Daniel Remartínez, Pedro Pablo Palma, Emanuel Baron, Rebeca F. Grais

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Abstract

Background: As resources are limited when responding to cholera outbreaks, knowledge about where to orient interventions is crucial. We describe the cholera epidemic affecting Guinea-Bissau in 2008 focusing on the geographical spread in order to guide prevention and control activities. Methodology/Principal Findings: We conducted two studies: 1) a descriptive analysis of the cholera epidemic in Guinea-Bissau focusing on its geographical spread (country level and within the capital); and 2) a cross-sectional study to measure the prevalence of houses with at least one cholera case in the most affected neighbourhood of the capital (Bairro Bandim) to detect clustering of households with cases (cluster analysis). All cholera cases attending the cholera treatment centres in Guinea-Bissau who fulfilled a modified World Health Organization clinical case definition during the epidemic were included in the descriptive study. For the cluster analysis, a sample of houses was selected from a satellite photo (Google Earth™); 140 houses (and the four closest houses) were assessed from the 2,202 identified structures. We applied K-functions and Kernel smoothing to detect clustering. We confirmed the clustering using Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic. A total of 14,222 cases and 225 deaths were reported in the country (AR = 0.94%, CFR = 1.64%). The more affected regions were Biombo, Bijagos and Bissau (the capital). Bairro Bandim was the most affected neighborhood of the capital (AR = 4.0). We found at least one case in 22.7% of the houses (95%CI: 19.5-26.2) in this neighborhood. The cluster analysis identified two areas within Bairro Bandim at highest risk: a market and an intersection where runoff accumulates waste (p

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere19005
JournalPLoS One
Volume6
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - 2011
Externally publishedYes

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Luquero, F. J., Banga, C. N., Remartínez, D., Palma, P. P., Baron, E., & Grais, R. F. (2011). Cholera epidemic in Guinea-Bissau (2008): The importance of "Place". PLoS One, 6(5), [e19005]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019005