Children's exposure to volatile organic compounds as determined by longitudinal measurements in blood

Ken Sexton, John L. Adgate, Timothy R. Church, David L. Ashley, Larry L. Needham, Gurumurthy Ramachandran, Ann L. Fredrickson, Andrew D. Ryan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Blood concentrations of 11 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured up to four times over 2 years in a probability sample of more than 150 children from two poor, minority neighborhoods in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Blood levels of benzene, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethene, and m-/p-xylene were comparable with those measured in selected adults from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), whereas concentrations of ethylbenzene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and o-xylene were two or more times lower in the children. Blood levels of styrene were more than twice as high, and for about 10% of the children 1,4-dichlorobenzene levels were ≥ 10 times higher compared with NHANES III subjects. We observed strong statistical associations between numerous pairwise combinations of individual VOCs in blood (e.g., benzene and m-/p-xylene, m-/p-xylene and o-xylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane and m-/p-xylene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane and trichloroethene). Between-child variability was higher than within-child variability for 1,4-dichlorobenzene and tetrachloroethylene. Between- and within-child variability were approximately the same for ethylbenzene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and between-child was lower than within-child variability for the other seven compounds. Two-day, integrated personal air measurements explained almost 79% of the variance in blood levels for 1,4-dichlorobenzene and approximately 20% for tetrachloroethylene, toluene, m-/p-xylene, and o-xylene. Personal air measurements explained much less of the variance (between 0.5 and 8%) for trichloroethene, styrene, benzene, and ethylbenzene. We observed no significant statistical associations between total urinary cotinine (a biomarker for exposure to environmental tobacco smoke) and blood VOC concentrations. For siblings living in the same household, we found strong statistical associations between measured blood VOC concentrations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)342-349
Number of pages8
JournalEnvironmental Health Perspectives
Volume113
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2005
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Volatile Organic Compounds
xylene
volatile organic compound
Blood
blood
Tetrachloroethylene
Trichloroethylene
Benzene
Nutrition Surveys
tetrachloroethylene
trichloroethylene
Styrene
benzene
Toluene
toluene
Air
Cotinine
Tobacco
Carbon Tetrachloride
health and nutrition

Keywords

  • Biomarkers
  • Blood concentrations
  • Children's health
  • Cotinine
  • Environmental justice
  • Environmental tobacco smoke
  • Exposure assessment
  • Interchild variability
  • Intrachild variability
  • Personal exposure
  • Volatile organic compounds

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Children's exposure to volatile organic compounds as determined by longitudinal measurements in blood. / Sexton, Ken; Adgate, John L.; Church, Timothy R.; Ashley, David L.; Needham, Larry L.; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Fredrickson, Ann L.; Ryan, Andrew D.

In: Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 113, No. 3, 03.2005, p. 342-349.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Sexton, K, Adgate, JL, Church, TR, Ashley, DL, Needham, LL, Ramachandran, G, Fredrickson, AL & Ryan, AD 2005, 'Children's exposure to volatile organic compounds as determined by longitudinal measurements in blood', Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 113, no. 3, pp. 342-349. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.7412
Sexton, Ken ; Adgate, John L. ; Church, Timothy R. ; Ashley, David L. ; Needham, Larry L. ; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy ; Fredrickson, Ann L. ; Ryan, Andrew D. / Children's exposure to volatile organic compounds as determined by longitudinal measurements in blood. In: Environmental Health Perspectives. 2005 ; Vol. 113, No. 3. pp. 342-349.
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