Children with co-occurring academic and behavior problems in first grade: Distal outcomes in twelfth grade

Dana Darney, Wendy M. Reinke, Keith C. Herman, Melissa Stormont, Nicholas S. Ialongo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The aim of the current study was to evaluate the eleven year longitudinal association between students identified in first grade as having academic and behavior problems and distal outcomes in twelfth grade. The study extends prior research that identified latent classes of academic and behavior problems in a longitudinal community sample of 678 predominately African American first-grade students. The type and number of classes identified in first grade differed by gender, but results indicated that students within the classes of behavior and academic problems had long-term negative outcomes in the twelfth grade. The class with co-occurring academic and behavior problems in first grade had the greatest risk for negative distal outcomes for both boys and girls including higher likelihood of special education placement, mental health service use, poor academic achievement, and school dropout. Implications for prevention, early intervention, and current practices in schools are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)117-128
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of School Psychology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1 2013



  • Academic problems
  • Behavior problems
  • Co-occurrence
  • Longitudinal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology

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