Although ADHD and depression are common comorbidities in youth, few studies have examined this particular clinical presentation. To address method bias limitations of previous research, this study uses multiple informants to compare the academic, social, and clinical functioning of children with ADHD, children with ADHD and depression, and children without ADHD, all derived from a large community sample. High levels of comorbid depression are found in children with ADHD. Children with ADHD and depression are more depressed and anxious than their non-depressed ADHD counterparts but do not have more extreme levels of ADHD or aggression. The association between depression and ADHD does not appear to be epiphenomenal, that is, related to a shared association with anxiety or externalizing symptoms. Finally, children with ADHD and depression display more impairment in social and academic functioning compared to controls. Although social impairment is greater in children with ADHD and depression than in children with only ADHD, conduct problems are not.
- Community sample
- Comorbid disorders
- Multiple sources of information
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Developmental and Educational Psychology
- Clinical Psychology