Primary prevention of prostate cancer is a relatively new concept. Through large-scale studies it is possible that we may be able to define better the risk for prostate cancer and identify those who would benefit from an intervention to lower their risk of disease. As risk for prostate cancer is better defined, a number of interventions may eventually be tested. Several interventions are sufficiently mature that they can be implemented in large-scale trials. Diet modification is an intervention that is ready for evaluation. It may also have additional benefits by decreasing mortality from other malignancies and cardiac disease. 5α-reductase inhibitors are also ready for testing. The National Cancer Institute and its clinical cooperative groups have begun a large trial to assess finasteride in the prevention of prostate cancer.
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