Characterizing social cohesion and gender identity as risk determinants of HIV among cisgender men who have sex with men and transgender women in Côte d'Ivoire

Alexander Moran, Ayden Scheim, Carrie Lyons, Benjamin Liestman, Fatou Drame, Sosthenes Ketende, Daouda Diouf, Ibrahima Ba, Rebecca Ezouatchi, Amara Bamba, Abo Kouame, Stefan Baral

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Purpose: HIV prevalence has been previously estimated among cisgender men who have sex with men (MSM) in Côte d'Ivoire; however, limited data exist relating to the role of social cohesion and gender identity within this population. This study aims to examine these factors as risk determinants of HIV among MSM in Côte d'Ivoire. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study using respondent-driven sampling for recruitment with a structured sociobehavioral instrument and testing for HIV. After respondent-driven sampling adjustment, chi-squared tests and bivariate logistic regression and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to characterize social and identity-based risk determinants of biologically confirmed prevalent HIV infection. Results: HIV prevalence was 11.2% (n = 146/1301). Transgender woman identity was associated with higher odds of HIV compared with cisgender MSM (aOR = 3.4, 95% CI [2.0–5.8], P < .001). Having a combined social cohesion score of medium (aOR = 0.4, 95% CI [0.2–0.8], P < .01) or high (aOR = 0.2, 95% CI [0.1–0.3], P < .001) was associated with lower odds of HIV compared with a low score. Conclusion: These data suggest that social cohesion is a determinant of prevalent HIV infection in Côte d'Ivoire among gay men, other cisgender MSM, and transgender women. The differences in HIV burden and social cohesion between transgender women and cisgender MSM highlight the need to better target the diversity of people traditionally included in the MSM umbrella to ensure comprehensive HIV prevention and treatment interventions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAnnals of epidemiology
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2020



  • Côte d'Ivoire
  • Gay
  • Gender identity
  • Social cohesion
  • Stigma
  • Transgender

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology

Cite this