The three D-type cyclins have been shown to be differentially expressed in a number of cell types, suggesting that they play distinct roles in cell cycle regulation in particular cell lineages. We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence (-1681 to +6582) of the mouse cyclin D3 gene, which encodes a G1 phase cyclin. The gene consists of five exons and four introns, varying in length from 422 to 2472 bp. Primer extension analysis revealed one major transcription initiation site at the position 107 bp 5' upstream of the translation start. The promoter region lacks both canonical 'TATA' and 'CAAT' boxes. It contains, however, multiple transcription factor recognition sites, including multiple 'GC-rich' sequences to which Sp1 factor binds and sequences recognized by GATA, NF-κB, ATF, E2F, and TRE/AP1 transcription factors, E box binding myogenic factors, and the IL-6 induced-transcription factor, APRF. Promoter activity of the 1681-bp fragment upstream of the transcription initiation site was confirmed by linking it to a reporter gene and subjecting it to transient expression experiments in various cell types. Promoter activity was high in cell lines that expressed high levels of endogenous D3 mRNA, as indicated by Northern blot analyses, and was significantly reduced when the promoter was truncated to -122 bp. The characterization of the mouse cyclin D3 gene and insight into its promoter region will allow further studies defining the molecular events regulating the expression of this cyclin in proliferating and quiescent cells.
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