Characterization of TEM1/endosialin in human and murine brain tumors

Eleanor B. Carson-Walter, Bethany N. Winans, Melissa C. Whiteman, Yang Liu, Sally Jarvela, Hannu Haapasalo, Betty M. Tyler, David L. Huso, Mahlon D. Johnson, Kevin A. Walter

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Abstract

Background: TEM1/endosialin is an emerging microvascular marker of tumor angiogenesis. We characterized the expression pattern of TEM1/endosialin in astrocytic and metastatic brain tumors and investigated its role as a therapeutic target in human endothelial cells and mouse xenograft models. Methods: In situ hybridization (ISH), immunohistochemistry (IH) and immunofluorescence (IF) were used to localize TEM1/endosialin expression in grade II-IV astrocytomas and metastatic brain tumors on tissue microarrays. Changes in TEM1/endosialin expression in response to pro-angiogenic conditions were assessed in human endothelial cells grown in vitro. Intracranial U87MG glioblastoma (GBM) xenografts were analyzed in nude TEM1/endosialin knockout (KO) and wildtype (WT) mice. Results: TEM1/endosialin was upregulated in primary and metastatic human brain tumors, where it localized primarily to the tumor vasculature and a subset of tumor stromal cells. Analysis of 275 arrayed grade II-IV astrocytomas demonstrated TEM1/endosialin expression in 79% of tumors. Robust TEM1/endosialin expression occurred in 31% of glioblastomas (grade IV astroctyomas). TEM1/endosialin expression was inversely correlated with patient age. TEM1/endosialin showed limited co-localization with CD31, αSMA and fibronectin in clinical specimens. In vitro, TEM1/endosialin was upregulated in human endothelial cells cultured in matrigel. Vascular Tem1/endosialin was induced in intracranial U87MG GBM xenografts grown in mice. Tem1/endosialin KO vs WT mice demonstrated equivalent survival and tumor growth when implanted with intracranial GBM xenografts, although Tem1/endosialin KO tumors were significantly more vascular than the WT counterparts. Conclusion: TEM1/endosialin was induced in the vasculature of high-grade brain tumors where its expression was inversely correlated with patient age. Although lack of TEM1/endosialin did not suppress growth of intracranial GBM xenografts, it did increase tumor vascularity. The cellular localization of TEM1/endosialin and its expression profile in primary and metastatic brain tumors support efforts to therapeutically target this protein, potentially via antibody mediated drug delivery strategies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number417
JournalBMC cancer
Volume9
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 30 2009

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

Carson-Walter, E. B., Winans, B. N., Whiteman, M. C., Liu, Y., Jarvela, S., Haapasalo, H., Tyler, B. M., Huso, D. L., Johnson, M. D., & Walter, K. A. (2009). Characterization of TEM1/endosialin in human and murine brain tumors. BMC cancer, 9, [417]. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-9-417