Significant subtype-specific differences were observed in the protease (PR) region of the HIV-1 pol gene. Most of the previous studies were restricted to subtype B, although subtype C accounts for more than 50% of HIV infections worldwide. In this study we characterized PR sequences from primary clinical isolates from protease inhibitor (PI)-naive patients in South India (n=39) as well as database-derived HIV-1 subtype C sequences from India (n=542) and globally (n=2970). All the study sequences were identified as subtype C, which is predominant in India. Drug resistance genotyping analysis identified 2.6% (1/39) prevalence of major PI resistance (I54T) and 7.7% (3/39) of minor PI resistance (L10I, T74S, and A71T). Selection of T12S, I15V, L19I, M36I, R41K, H69K, L89M, and I93L was observed both in global and Indian subtype C while the L63P mutation was selected in Indian PR sequences. Three different codon-based maximum likelihood methods agreed on four sites (12, 19, 36, and 82) under positive selection in Indian sequences.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases