Chapter 3 Diseases Associated with Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone Receptor (GHRHR) Mutations

Marco Martari, Roberto Salvatori

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

The growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone (GHRH) receptor (GHRHR) belongs to the G protein-coupled receptors family. It is expressed almost exclusively in the anterior pituitary, where it is necessary for somatotroph cells proliferation and for GH synthesis and secretion. Mutations in the human GHRHR gene (GHRHR) can impair ligand binding and signal transduction, and have been estimated to cause about 10% of autosomal recessive familial isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD). Mutations reported to date include five splice donor site mutations, two microdeletions, two nonsense mutations, seven missense mutations, and one mutation in the promoter. These mutations have an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance, and heterozygous individuals do not show signs of IGHD, although the presence of an intermediate phenotype has been hypothesized. Conversely, patients with biallelic mutations have low serum insulin-like growth factor-1 and GH levels (with absent or reduced GH response to exogenous stimuli), resulting-if not treated-in proportionate dwarfism. This chapter reviews the biology of the GHRHR, the mutations that affect its gene and their effects in homozygous and heterozygous individuals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)57-84
Number of pages28
JournalProgress in molecular biology and translational science
Volume88
Issue numberC
DOIs
StatePublished - 2009

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology

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