Purpose: Renal calculi are a significant source of morbidity for patients with neurogenic bladder. Calculi from patients with NB have traditionally been composed primarily of struvite and carbonate apatite secondary to chronic urea-splitting bacteriuria. In the current era there have been great improvements in the urological rehabilitation of patients with NB. We defined the composition of renal calculi in a contemporary cohort of patients with NB due to spinal cord injury or myelomeningocele who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective evaluation of all patients with NB due to SCI or MM who underwent PNL between January 2002 and January 2005. Results: A total of 32 patients with NB (14 with SCI, 18 with MM) underwent PNL in this period. Stones were infectious in etiology in 37.5% (12 struvite/carbonate apatite) and metabolic in 62.5% (1 uric acid, 2 calcium oxalate monohydrate, 2 brushite, 6 hydroxyapatite, 9 mixed hydroxyapatite/calcium oxalate). All patients with struvite calculi were infected with urea-splitting bacteria on preoperative urine culture. Conclusions: Patients with neurogenic bladder are traditionally thought to harbor infection related calculi. These data demonstrate that many contemporary patients will be found to have calculi of a metabolic etiology. Although patients with NB still have renal calculi, advances in urological treatment may have affected the composition of their calculi, as metabolic stones are becoming more commonly identified. When metabolic components are identified, stone activity may be attenuated with appropriate metabolic evaluation, pharmacological therapies and dietary modifications.
- kidney calculi
ASJC Scopus subject areas