Background: Although the results of clinical trials often guide best practices, changing clinical practice based on clinical trial results can be challenging. The objective of this study was to examine provider-reported barriers to adopting best clinical practices according to clinical trial data. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted of providers from the National Accreditation Program for Breast Centers about barriers that prevent the incorporation of trial findings. Descriptive analyses and multivariable analyses were performed to determine provider characteristics that were significantly associated with reported barriers. Results: Overall, 383 institutions participated (63.5% response rate), with a total of 1226 physicians responding to the survey (80% response rate). Providers identified national guidelines and meetings as the most compelling way to receive practice-changing information. They reported the following internal barriers to trial implementation: patient preference (45%), strongly held beliefs by partners/colleagues (37%), and insufficient time to discuss new practices (30%). External barriers preventing trial implementation included a lack of agreement from multidisciplinary tumor boards (32%), fear of reimbursement loss (23%), and resistance from clinical staff (20%). Reported barriers differed by provider specialty, with plastic surgeons and radiation oncologists reporting that strongly held beliefs by partners/colleagues and disagreement from multidisciplinary tumor boards were the most significant factors preventing clinical trial implementation. Conclusions: Physician beliefs and patient preferences are the most frequently reported barriers to clinical trial implementation. Tactics to better educate providers about how to explain new clinical trial data to their patients and colleagues are needed.
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