Cervical intervertebral disc degeneration induced by unbalanced dynamic and static forces: A novel in vivo rat model

Yong Jun Wang, Qi Shi, W. W. Lu, K. C.M. Cheung, Michael Darowish, Tian Fang Li, Yu Feng Dong, Chong Jian Zhou, Quan Zhou, Zhi Jun Hu, Mei Liu, Qin Bian, Chen Guang Li, K. D.K. Luk, J. C.Y. Leong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

STUDY DESIGN. Establishment of a novel in vivo animal model of cervical spondylosis. OBJECTIVE. To investigate apoptotic, degenerative, and inflammatory changes occurring in the cervical intervertebral discs of rats. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. Cervical degeneration occurs as the result of imbalance of both static and dynamic spinal stabilizers. The disc degeneration that occurs is characterized by increased local inflammation and increased apoptosis of intervertebral disc cells. METHODS. By excising the paraspinal musculature and posterior cervical spinal ligaments of rats, both static and dynamic cervical stabilizers were disrupted. The resultant biomechanical imbalance resulted in biochemical and histologic changes, which were characterized by light microscopy, electron microscopy, immunostaining, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, polymerase chain reaction, and in situ hybridization. RESULTS. Histologic analysis showed characteristic degenerative changes of the intervertebral discs and vertebral endplates following surgery. Ultrastructural examination revealed apoptotic changes, which were verified by immunostaining. Instability also resulted in significant up-regulation of inflammatory factors, as shown by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, polymerase chain reaction, and in situ hybridization. CONCLUSIONS. By creating static and dynamic posterior instability of the cervical spine, this novel model of cervical spondylosis results in rapid intervertebral disc degeneration characterized by increased apoptosis and local inflammation, such as that seen clinically.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1532-1538
Number of pages7
JournalSpine
Volume31
Issue number14
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2006
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Intervertebral Disc Degeneration
Spondylosis
Intervertebral Disc
In Situ Hybridization
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Apoptosis
Inflammation
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Ligaments
Microscopy
Electron Microscopy
Spine
Up-Regulation
Animal Models
Light

Keywords

  • Apoptosis
  • Cervical spine
  • Degeneration
  • Inflammation
  • Intervertebral disc

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Clinical Neurology

Cite this

Wang, Y. J., Shi, Q., Lu, W. W., Cheung, K. C. M., Darowish, M., Li, T. F., ... Leong, J. C. Y. (2006). Cervical intervertebral disc degeneration induced by unbalanced dynamic and static forces: A novel in vivo rat model. Spine, 31(14), 1532-1538. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.brs.0000222019.84095.23

Cervical intervertebral disc degeneration induced by unbalanced dynamic and static forces : A novel in vivo rat model. / Wang, Yong Jun; Shi, Qi; Lu, W. W.; Cheung, K. C.M.; Darowish, Michael; Li, Tian Fang; Dong, Yu Feng; Zhou, Chong Jian; Zhou, Quan; Hu, Zhi Jun; Liu, Mei; Bian, Qin; Li, Chen Guang; Luk, K. D.K.; Leong, J. C.Y.

In: Spine, Vol. 31, No. 14, 01.06.2006, p. 1532-1538.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Wang, YJ, Shi, Q, Lu, WW, Cheung, KCM, Darowish, M, Li, TF, Dong, YF, Zhou, CJ, Zhou, Q, Hu, ZJ, Liu, M, Bian, Q, Li, CG, Luk, KDK & Leong, JCY 2006, 'Cervical intervertebral disc degeneration induced by unbalanced dynamic and static forces: A novel in vivo rat model', Spine, vol. 31, no. 14, pp. 1532-1538. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.brs.0000222019.84095.23
Wang, Yong Jun ; Shi, Qi ; Lu, W. W. ; Cheung, K. C.M. ; Darowish, Michael ; Li, Tian Fang ; Dong, Yu Feng ; Zhou, Chong Jian ; Zhou, Quan ; Hu, Zhi Jun ; Liu, Mei ; Bian, Qin ; Li, Chen Guang ; Luk, K. D.K. ; Leong, J. C.Y. / Cervical intervertebral disc degeneration induced by unbalanced dynamic and static forces : A novel in vivo rat model. In: Spine. 2006 ; Vol. 31, No. 14. pp. 1532-1538.
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abstract = "STUDY DESIGN. Establishment of a novel in vivo animal model of cervical spondylosis. OBJECTIVE. To investigate apoptotic, degenerative, and inflammatory changes occurring in the cervical intervertebral discs of rats. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. Cervical degeneration occurs as the result of imbalance of both static and dynamic spinal stabilizers. The disc degeneration that occurs is characterized by increased local inflammation and increased apoptosis of intervertebral disc cells. METHODS. By excising the paraspinal musculature and posterior cervical spinal ligaments of rats, both static and dynamic cervical stabilizers were disrupted. The resultant biomechanical imbalance resulted in biochemical and histologic changes, which were characterized by light microscopy, electron microscopy, immunostaining, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, polymerase chain reaction, and in situ hybridization. RESULTS. Histologic analysis showed characteristic degenerative changes of the intervertebral discs and vertebral endplates following surgery. Ultrastructural examination revealed apoptotic changes, which were verified by immunostaining. Instability also resulted in significant up-regulation of inflammatory factors, as shown by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, polymerase chain reaction, and in situ hybridization. CONCLUSIONS. By creating static and dynamic posterior instability of the cervical spine, this novel model of cervical spondylosis results in rapid intervertebral disc degeneration characterized by increased apoptosis and local inflammation, such as that seen clinically.",
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T2 - A novel in vivo rat model

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AU - Shi, Qi

AU - Lu, W. W.

AU - Cheung, K. C.M.

AU - Darowish, Michael

AU - Li, Tian Fang

AU - Dong, Yu Feng

AU - Zhou, Chong Jian

AU - Zhou, Quan

AU - Hu, Zhi Jun

AU - Liu, Mei

AU - Bian, Qin

AU - Li, Chen Guang

AU - Luk, K. D.K.

AU - Leong, J. C.Y.

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N2 - STUDY DESIGN. Establishment of a novel in vivo animal model of cervical spondylosis. OBJECTIVE. To investigate apoptotic, degenerative, and inflammatory changes occurring in the cervical intervertebral discs of rats. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. Cervical degeneration occurs as the result of imbalance of both static and dynamic spinal stabilizers. The disc degeneration that occurs is characterized by increased local inflammation and increased apoptosis of intervertebral disc cells. METHODS. By excising the paraspinal musculature and posterior cervical spinal ligaments of rats, both static and dynamic cervical stabilizers were disrupted. The resultant biomechanical imbalance resulted in biochemical and histologic changes, which were characterized by light microscopy, electron microscopy, immunostaining, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, polymerase chain reaction, and in situ hybridization. RESULTS. Histologic analysis showed characteristic degenerative changes of the intervertebral discs and vertebral endplates following surgery. Ultrastructural examination revealed apoptotic changes, which were verified by immunostaining. Instability also resulted in significant up-regulation of inflammatory factors, as shown by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, polymerase chain reaction, and in situ hybridization. CONCLUSIONS. By creating static and dynamic posterior instability of the cervical spine, this novel model of cervical spondylosis results in rapid intervertebral disc degeneration characterized by increased apoptosis and local inflammation, such as that seen clinically.

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