Background: Cerebrovascular reserve, the potential capacity of brain tissue to receive more blood flow when needed, is a desirable marker in evaluating ischemic risk. However, current measurement methods require acetazolamide injection or hypercapnia challenge, prompting a clinical need for resting-state (RS) blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI data to measure cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR). Purpose: To optimize and evaluate an RS CVR MRI technique and demonstrate its relationship to neurosurgical treatment. Materials and Methods: In this HIPAA-compliant study, RS BOLD functional MRI data collected in 170 healthy controls between December 2008 and September 2010 were retrospectively evaluated to identify the optimal frequency range of temporal filtering on the basis of spatial correlation with the reference standard CVR map obtained with CO2 inhalation. Next, the optimized RS method was applied in a new, prospective cohort of 50 participants with Moyamoya disease who underwent imaging between June 2014 and August 2019. Finally, CVR values were compared between brain hemispheres with and brain hemispheres without revascularization surgery by using Mann-Whitney U test. Results: A total of 170 healthy controls (mean age ± standard deviation, 51 years ± 20; 105 women) and 100 brain hemispheres of 50 participants with Moyamoya disease (mean age, 41 years ± 12; 43 women) were evaluated. RS CVR maps based on a temporal filtering frequency of [0, 0.1164 Hz] yielded the highest spatial correlation (r = 0.74) with the CO2 inhalation CVR results. In patients with Moyamoya disease, 77 middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) had stenosis. RS CVR in the MCA territory was lower in the group that did not undergo surgery (n = 30) than in the group that underwent surgery (n = 47) (mean, 0.407 relative units [ru] ± 0.208 vs 0.532 ru ± 0.182, respectively; P = .006), which is corroborated with the CO2 inhalation CVR data (mean, 0.242 ru ± 0.273 vs 0.437 ru ± 0.200; P = .003). Conclusion: Cerebrovascular reactivity mapping performed by using resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent functional MRI provided a task-free method to measure cerebrovascular reserve and depicted treatment effect of revascularization surgery in patients with Moyamoya disease comparable to that with the reference standard of CO2 inhalation MRI.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging