MRI tracking of stem cells and progenitor cells is now widely being pursued in preclinical models of neurological diseases, including stroke. Typically, the cells of interest are labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles that knock out the signal on the MR images. In this chapter, several methods are described that can be used to achieve intracellular SPIO labeling. In addition, some of the newer approaches are being discussed, in particular the use of perfluorocarbon emulsions for 19F hot spot MRI and MRI reporter genes, with the latter being the much sought-after holy grail for MRI cell tracking.
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