Cell birth and death in the mouse retinal ganglion cell layer

Mohamed H Farah, Stephen S. Easter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Here we describe quantitatively the birth and death of the two separate populations of neurons, ganglion cells and displaced amacrine cells, in the mouse retinal ganglion cell layer (GCL). The two cell types, which are roughly equally numerous, were distinguished pre- and postnatally by labeling the ganglion cells retrogradely with fluorescent dye. Embryos were labeled cumulatively with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) delivered by an osmotic minipump implanted in the mother; cell birth dates were established as having occurred before or after pump implantation. Early cohorts (GCL cells born before embryonic day [E] 11.8 and E12.8) were 98 ± 1.1% and 99 ± 0.2% ganglion cells (mean ± SEM), respectively, and a late cohort (born after E15.8) was 97 ± 1.2% displaced amacrines. Thus birth date was a strong predictor of a GCL cell's ultimate identity. Cell death in each cohort was estimated by counting cells at different time points (soon after the cohort was produced and later) and subtracting the later from the earlier number. This method avoids the problem of simultaneous birth and death that has plagued many of the earlier attempts to assess cell death. Negligible numbers died during the first week after a cell's birthday. The amount of cell death differed in the two cohorts; 48.5 ± 15% and 29.0 ± 12.4% in early and late, respectively, and most of it was postnatal. These findings disagree sharply with an earlier conclusion that ganglion cells die within 5 days of their birthdays or not at all.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)120-134
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Comparative Neurology
Volume489
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 15 2005

Fingerprint

Retinal Ganglion Cells
Cell Death
Parturition
Ganglia
Amacrine Cells
Bromodeoxyuridine
Fluorescent Dyes
Embryonic Structures

Keywords

  • Amacrine
  • Fate
  • Precursor competence, birthdate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

Cell birth and death in the mouse retinal ganglion cell layer. / Farah, Mohamed H; Easter, Stephen S.

In: Journal of Comparative Neurology, Vol. 489, No. 1, 15.08.2005, p. 120-134.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{7d619498a5354b6f992478ccf1dfbed9,
title = "Cell birth and death in the mouse retinal ganglion cell layer",
abstract = "Here we describe quantitatively the birth and death of the two separate populations of neurons, ganglion cells and displaced amacrine cells, in the mouse retinal ganglion cell layer (GCL). The two cell types, which are roughly equally numerous, were distinguished pre- and postnatally by labeling the ganglion cells retrogradely with fluorescent dye. Embryos were labeled cumulatively with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) delivered by an osmotic minipump implanted in the mother; cell birth dates were established as having occurred before or after pump implantation. Early cohorts (GCL cells born before embryonic day [E] 11.8 and E12.8) were 98 ± 1.1{\%} and 99 ± 0.2{\%} ganglion cells (mean ± SEM), respectively, and a late cohort (born after E15.8) was 97 ± 1.2{\%} displaced amacrines. Thus birth date was a strong predictor of a GCL cell's ultimate identity. Cell death in each cohort was estimated by counting cells at different time points (soon after the cohort was produced and later) and subtracting the later from the earlier number. This method avoids the problem of simultaneous birth and death that has plagued many of the earlier attempts to assess cell death. Negligible numbers died during the first week after a cell's birthday. The amount of cell death differed in the two cohorts; 48.5 ± 15{\%} and 29.0 ± 12.4{\%} in early and late, respectively, and most of it was postnatal. These findings disagree sharply with an earlier conclusion that ganglion cells die within 5 days of their birthdays or not at all.",
keywords = "Amacrine, Fate, Precursor competence, birthdate",
author = "Farah, {Mohamed H} and Easter, {Stephen S.}",
year = "2005",
month = "8",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1002/cne.20615",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "489",
pages = "120--134",
journal = "Journal of Comparative Neurology",
issn = "0021-9967",
publisher = "Wiley-Liss Inc.",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Cell birth and death in the mouse retinal ganglion cell layer

AU - Farah, Mohamed H

AU - Easter, Stephen S.

PY - 2005/8/15

Y1 - 2005/8/15

N2 - Here we describe quantitatively the birth and death of the two separate populations of neurons, ganglion cells and displaced amacrine cells, in the mouse retinal ganglion cell layer (GCL). The two cell types, which are roughly equally numerous, were distinguished pre- and postnatally by labeling the ganglion cells retrogradely with fluorescent dye. Embryos were labeled cumulatively with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) delivered by an osmotic minipump implanted in the mother; cell birth dates were established as having occurred before or after pump implantation. Early cohorts (GCL cells born before embryonic day [E] 11.8 and E12.8) were 98 ± 1.1% and 99 ± 0.2% ganglion cells (mean ± SEM), respectively, and a late cohort (born after E15.8) was 97 ± 1.2% displaced amacrines. Thus birth date was a strong predictor of a GCL cell's ultimate identity. Cell death in each cohort was estimated by counting cells at different time points (soon after the cohort was produced and later) and subtracting the later from the earlier number. This method avoids the problem of simultaneous birth and death that has plagued many of the earlier attempts to assess cell death. Negligible numbers died during the first week after a cell's birthday. The amount of cell death differed in the two cohorts; 48.5 ± 15% and 29.0 ± 12.4% in early and late, respectively, and most of it was postnatal. These findings disagree sharply with an earlier conclusion that ganglion cells die within 5 days of their birthdays or not at all.

AB - Here we describe quantitatively the birth and death of the two separate populations of neurons, ganglion cells and displaced amacrine cells, in the mouse retinal ganglion cell layer (GCL). The two cell types, which are roughly equally numerous, were distinguished pre- and postnatally by labeling the ganglion cells retrogradely with fluorescent dye. Embryos were labeled cumulatively with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) delivered by an osmotic minipump implanted in the mother; cell birth dates were established as having occurred before or after pump implantation. Early cohorts (GCL cells born before embryonic day [E] 11.8 and E12.8) were 98 ± 1.1% and 99 ± 0.2% ganglion cells (mean ± SEM), respectively, and a late cohort (born after E15.8) was 97 ± 1.2% displaced amacrines. Thus birth date was a strong predictor of a GCL cell's ultimate identity. Cell death in each cohort was estimated by counting cells at different time points (soon after the cohort was produced and later) and subtracting the later from the earlier number. This method avoids the problem of simultaneous birth and death that has plagued many of the earlier attempts to assess cell death. Negligible numbers died during the first week after a cell's birthday. The amount of cell death differed in the two cohorts; 48.5 ± 15% and 29.0 ± 12.4% in early and late, respectively, and most of it was postnatal. These findings disagree sharply with an earlier conclusion that ganglion cells die within 5 days of their birthdays or not at all.

KW - Amacrine

KW - Fate

KW - Precursor competence, birthdate

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=21644450408&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=21644450408&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1002/cne.20615

DO - 10.1002/cne.20615

M3 - Article

C2 - 15977166

AN - SCOPUS:21644450408

VL - 489

SP - 120

EP - 134

JO - Journal of Comparative Neurology

JF - Journal of Comparative Neurology

SN - 0021-9967

IS - 1

ER -