CD4, viral load response, and adherence among antiretroviral-naive breast-feeding women receiving triple antiretroviral prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Kisumu, Kenya

Jully A. Okonji, Clement Zeh, Paul J. Weidle, John Williamson, Benta Akoth, Rose O. Masaba, Mary G. Fowler, Timothy K. Thomas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Health benefits and survival of an exclusively breast-fed infant is dependent on the mother's health; thus, the need for antiretroviral (ARV) intervention for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). Achieving maternal health benefits from these regimens requires adherence to the treatments and close monitoring. We evaluated virologic, immunologic responses, and adherence among women receiving maternal triple ARV prophylaxis consisting of lamivudine/zidovudine and nevirapine or nelfinavir in the Kisumu Breastfeeding Study. METHODS: We analyzed baseline demographic data, trends in CD4 count, and viral load (VL) at enrollment (32-34 weeks gestation), delivery, 14 and 24 weeks postpartum among 434 women who remained in the study at 24 weeks postpartum. Adherence rates were determined using pill counts reinforced by self-report and drug calendar. We dichotomized adherence as ≥95% versus <95%. RESULTS: Among the 434 women, 84% (n = 366) had adherence ≥95%. The proportion of women with undetectable VL (<400 copies/mL) increased from 6% at baseline to 79%, and that of those with CD4 count <250 cells per microliter decreased from 23% (100) at baseline to 5% (22) at 24 weeks postpartum. In discrete-survival model, time to achieving VL suppression was associated with baseline VL <5.0 log copies per milliliter, parity ≥2, and use of nelfinavir-versus nevirapine-based ARV. Association between undetectable VL with duration of therapy (P < 0.0001) and adherence with suppression of VL (P = 0.001) was observed. CONCLUSIONS: High baseline VL and short exposure to ARVs for PMTCT are risk factors for failing to achieve undetectable VL. These findings support the new WHO guidelines for early initiation of ARV prophylaxis for PMTCT for maximal reduction of maternal VL.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)249-257
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes
Volume61
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2012

Keywords

  • ART
  • ARV
  • CD4+
  • Western Kenya
  • adherence
  • antiretroviral naive
  • prevention of motherto-child transmission
  • viral load
  • viral suppression

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'CD4, viral load response, and adherence among antiretroviral-naive breast-feeding women receiving triple antiretroviral prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Kisumu, Kenya'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this