CD4-independent, CCR5-dependent infection of brain capillary endothelial cells by a neurovirulent simian immunodeficiency virus strain

Aimee L. Edinger, Joseph L. Mankowski, Benjamin J. Doranz, Barry J. Margulies, Benhur Lee, Joseph Rucker, Matthew Sharron, Trevor L. Hoffman, Joanne F. Berson, M. Christine Zink, Vanessa M. Hirsch, Janice E. Clements, Robert W. Doms

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) are targets of CD4-independent infection by HIV-1 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains in vitro and in vivo. Infection of BCECs may provide a portal of entry for the virus into the central nervous system and could disrupt blood-brain barrier function, contributing to the development of AIDS dementia. We found that rhesus macaque BCECs express chemokine receptors involved in HIV and SIV entry including CCR5, CCR3, CXCR4, and STRL33, but not CCR2b, GPR1, or GPR15. Infection of BCECs by the neurovirulent strain SIV/17E-Fr was completely inhibited by aminooxypentane regulation upon activation, normal T cell expression and secretion in the presence or absence of ligands, but not by eotaxin or antibodies to CD4. We found that the envelope (env) proteins from SIV/17E-Fr and several additional SIV strains mediated cell-cell fusion and virus infection with CD4-negative, CCR5-positive cells. In contrast, fusion with cells expressing the coreceptors STRL33, GPR1, and GPR15 was CD4- dependent. These results show that CCR5 can serve as a primary receptor for SIV in BCECs and suggest a possible CD4-independent mechanism for blood- brain barrier disruption and viral entry into the central nervous system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)14742-14747
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume94
Issue number26
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 23 1997

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

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