CCL2 is a cytokine prevalent in the prostate cancer tumor microenvironment. Recently, we reported that CCL2 induces the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway to promote prostate cancer PC3 cell survival; however, themechanism used by CCL2 tomaintainmTOR complex-1 (mTORC1) activation requires clarification. This study demonstrates that upon serum starvation, CCL2 functions as a negative regulator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by decreasing phosphorylation at its major regulatory site (Thr172) in PC3, DU145, and C4-2B prostate cancer cells. The CCL2-mediated AMPK regulation decreased raptor phosphorylation (Ser792) resulting in hyperactivation of mTORC1. D942, a pharmacological activator of AMPK, stunted CCL2-induced mTORC1 activity, survivin expression, and cell survival without significantly affecting Akt activity. CCL2, however, conferred some resistance to the lethal effect of D942 compared with untreated cells. By using Akt-specific inhibitor X, it was shown that Akt inactivation did not cause an increase in AMPK phosphorylation in CCL2-stimulated cells, suggesting that CCL2-mediated negative regulation of AMPK is independent of Akt. Furthermore, bisindolylmaleimide-V, a specific inhibitor of p70S6K, stunted survivin expression and induced cell death in CCL2-treated PC3. Altogether, these findings suggest that CCL2 hyperactivates mTORC1 through simultaneous regulation of both AMPK and Akt pathways and reveals a new network that promotes prostate cancer: CCL2-AMPK-mTORC1-survivin.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research