Caveat emptor: The combined effects of multiplicity and selective reporting 11 Medical and Health Sciences 1117 Public Health and Health Services

Tianjing Li, Evan R Mayo-Wilson, Nicole Fusco, Hwanhee Hong, Kay Dickersin

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article


Clinical trials and systematic reviews of clinical trials inform healthcare decisions. There is growing concern, however, about results from clinical trials that cannot be reproduced. Reasons for nonreproducibility include that outcomes are defined in multiple ways, results can be obtained using multiple methods of analysis, and trial findings are reported in multiple sources ("multiplicity"). Multiplicity combined with selective reporting can influence dissemination of trial findings and decision-making. In particular, users of evidence might be misled by exposure to selected sources and overly optimistic representations of intervention effects. In this commentary, drawing from our experience in the Multiple Data Sources in Systematic Reviews (MUDS) study and evidence from previous research, we offer practical recommendations to enhance the reproducibility of clinical trials and systematic reviews.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number497
Issue number1
StatePublished - Sep 17 2018



  • Multiplicity
  • Reproducibility
  • Selective reporting

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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