Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is defined as the constellation of symptoms that includes low-back pain, sciatica, saddle anesthesia, decreased rectal tone and perineal reflexes, bowel and bladder dysfunction, and variable amounts of lower-extremity weakness. There are several causes of this syndrome including trauma, central disc protrusion, hemorrhage, and neoplastic invasion. In this manuscript the authors reviewed CES in the setting of both primary and secondary neoplasms. They examined the various primary tumor types in this region as well as those representative of metastatic spread. Both surgical and nonsurgical management in this setting were studied.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology