Carotid artery imaging: The study of intra-plaque vascularization and hemorrhage in the era of the “vulnerable” plaque

Michele Porcu, Michele Anzidei, Jasjit S. Suri, Bruce A Wasserman, Nicoletta Anzalone, Pierleone Lucatelli, Federico Loi, Roberto Montisci, Roberto Sanfilippo, Vasileios Rafailidis, Luca Saba

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) is one of the main factors involved in atherosclerotic plaque (AP) instability. Its recognition is crucial for the correct staging and management of patients with carotid artery plaques to limit ischemic stroke. Imaging plays a crucial role in identifying IPH, even if the great variability of intraplaque vascularization and the limitations of our current imaging technologies make it difficult. The intent of this review is to give a general overview of the main features of intraplaque vascularization and IPH on Ultrasound (US), Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance (MR) and Nuclear Medicine, and a brief description on the future prospectives.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)464-472
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Neuroradiology
Volume47
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Clinical Neurology

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