Intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) is one of the main factors involved in atherosclerotic plaque (AP) instability. Its recognition is crucial for the correct staging and management of patients with carotid artery plaques to limit ischemic stroke. Imaging plays a crucial role in identifying IPH, even if the great variability of intraplaque vascularization and the limitations of our current imaging technologies make it difficult. The intent of this review is to give a general overview of the main features of intraplaque vascularization and IPH on Ultrasound (US), Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance (MR) and Nuclear Medicine, and a brief description on the future prospectives.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Clinical Neurology